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1.4301

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Description

Stainless steel types 1.4301 and 1.4307 are also known as grades 304 and 304L respectively. Type 304 is the most versatile and widely used stainless steel. It is still sometimes referred to by its old name 18/8 which is derived from the nominal composition of type 304 being 18% chromium and 8% nickel. Type 304 stainless steel is an austenitic grade that can be severely deep drawn. This property has resulted in 304 being the dominant grade used in applications like sinks and saucepans. Type 304L is the low carbon version of 304. It is used in heavy gauge components for improved weldability. Some products such as plate and pipe may be available as “dual certified” material that meets the criteria for both 304 and 304L. 304H, a high carbon content variant, is also available for use at high temperatures.

Related Standards

Equivalent Materials

Properties

Electrical

Electrical resistivity ρel

7.2E-8 Ω·m at 20 °C

General

Density ρ

8 g/cm³ at 20 °C

Mechanical

Elastic modulus E

193 GPa at 20 °C

Hardness, Brinell HB

215 [-] at 20 °C

Tensile strength Rm

500 - 700 MPa at 20 °C

Yield strength YS

190 MPa at 20 °C

Thermal

Coefficient of thermal expansion α

1.72E-5 1/K at 20 °C

Melting point Tm

1450 °C

Thermal conductivity λ

16.2 W/(m·K) at 20 °C

Chemical properties

Element

Weight %

Comment

Fe

-

Balance

Cr

17.5 - 19.5 %

Ni

8 - 10.5 %

Mn

2 %

Si

1 %

More

Technological properties

Corrosion properties

1.4301 has excellent corrosion resistance in many environments and when in contact with different corrosive media. Pitting and crevice corrosion can occur in environments containing chlorides. Stress corrosion cracking can occur above 60°C.

General machinability

1.4301 has good machinability. Machining can be enhanced by using the following rules: Cutting edges must be kept sharp. Dull edges cause excess work hardening. Cuts should be light but deep enough to prevent work hardening by riding on the surface of the material. Chip breakers should be employed to assist in ensuring swarf remains clear of the work. Low thermal conductivity of austenitic alloys results in heat concentrating at the cutting edges. This means coolants and lubricants are necessary and must be used in large quantities.

Welding

Fusion welding performance for type 304 (1.4301) stainless steel is excellent both with and without fillers. Recommended filler rods and electrodes for stainless steel 304 is grade 308 stainless steel. For 304L the recommended filler is 308L. Heavy welded sections may require post-weld annealing. This step is not required for 304L. Grade 321 may be used if post-weld heat treatment is not possible.

Workability

1.4301 stainless steel readily work hardens. Fabrication methods involving cold working may require an intermediate annealing stage to alleviate work hardening and avoid tearing or cracking. At the completion of fabrication a full annealing operation should be employed to reduce internal stresses and optimise corrosion resistance. Fabrication methods, like forging, that involve hot working should occur after uniform heating to 1149-1260°C. The fabricated components should then be rapidly cooled to ensure maximum corrosion resistance.

This material data has been provided by Righton Blackburns.

All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.