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Description

1.4401 stainless steel contains an addition of molybdenum that gives it improved corrosion resistance. This is particularly apparent for pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments. The austenitic structure of 1.4401 stainless steel gives excellent toughness, even at cryogenic temperatures.

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Equivalent Materials

Properties

Electrical

Electrical resistivity ρel

7.4E-8 Ω·m at 20 °C

General

Density ρ

8 g/cm³ at 20 °C

Mechanical

Elastic modulus E

193 GPa at 20 °C

Hardness, Brinell HB

215 [-] at 20 °C

Tensile strength Rm

500 - 700 MPa at 20 °C

Yield strength YS

200 MPa at 20 °C

Thermal

Coefficient of thermal expansion α

1.59E-5 1/K at 20 °C

Melting point Tm

1400 °C

Thermal conductivity λ

16.3 W/(m·K) at 20 °C

Chemical properties

Element

Weight %

Comment

Fe

-

Balance

Cr

16.5 - 18.5 %

Ni

10 - 13 %

Mn

2 %

Mo

2 - 2.5 %

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Technological properties

Corrosion properties

Grade 1.4401 has excellent corrosion resistance when exposed to a range of corrosive environments and media. It is usually regarded as “marine grade” stainless steel but is not resistant to warm sea water. Warm chloride environments can cause pitting and crevice corrosion. Grade 316 is also subject to stress corrosion cracking above around 60°C.

General machinability

1.4401 (316) stainless steel has good machinability. Machining can be enhanced using the following rules: Cutting edges must be kept sharp. Dull edges cause excess work hardening. Cuts should be light but deep enough to prevent work hardening by riding on the surface of the material. Chip breakers should be employed to assist in ensuring swarf remains clear of the work. Low thermal conductivity of austenitic alloys results in heat concentrating at the cutting edges. This means coolants and lubricants are necessary and must be used in large quantities.

Welding

Fusion welding performance for 1.4401 (316) stainless steel is excellent both with and without fillers. Recommended filler rods and electrodes for 316 and 316L are the same as the base metal, 316 and 316L respectively. Heavy welded sections may require post-weld annealing. Grade 316Ti may be used as an alternative to 316 in heavy section welds. Oxyacetylene welding has not been found to be successful for joining of 316 stainless steel.

Workability

Grade 1.4401 (316) is readily brake or roll formed into a variety of parts. It is also suited to stamping, heading and drawing but post work annealing is recommended to relieve internal stresses. Cold working will increase both strength and hardness of 1.4401 stainless steel. All common hot working processes can be performed on 1.4401 stainless steel. Hot working should be avoided below 927°C. The ideal temperature range for hot working is 1149-1260°C. Post-work annealing is recommended to ensure optimum corrosion resistance.

This material data has been provided by Righton Blackburns.

All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.