VDM® Alloy 718

Alternative and trade names
Nicrofer 5219 Nb, Inconel 718, VDM® Alloy 718
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Description

2.4668 (NiCr19Fe19Nb5Mo3) is an age hardenable nickel-chrome-iron-molybdenum alloy. The age hardening is achieved by specific additions of niobium, titanium and aluminum. It can be delivered in solution-annealed or hardened condition and shows the following features and properties:


  • Good processing properties in the solution-annealed condition
  • Good mechanical short and long-term properties, and great fatigue strength in the age hardened condition
  • Good creep resistance up to 700°C
  • Good oxidation resistance up to approx. 1,000°C
  • Excellent mechanical properties in low temperatures
  • Equivalent Materials

    This material data has been provided by VDM Metals.

    All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
    Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.

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    Properties

    General

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Density

    23.0 °C

    8.26 g/cm³

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    Mechanical

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Creep strength

    550.0 °C

    810 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h according to DIN EN 10302 of the solution annealed and age hardened condition

    600.0 °C

    620 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h according to DIN EN 10302 of the solution annealed and age hardened condition

    650.0 °C

    425 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h according to DIN EN 10302 of the solution annealed and age hardened condition

    700.0 °C

    248 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h according to DIN EN 10302 of the solution annealed and age hardened condition

    750.0 °C

    125 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h according to DIN EN 10302 of the solution annealed and age hardened condition

    800.0 °C

    36 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h according to DIN EN 10302 of the solution annealed and age hardened condition

    Elastic modulus

    20.0 °C

    204 GPa

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    100.0 °C

    199 GPa

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    200.0 °C

    193 GPa

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    300.0 °C

    187 GPa

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    400.0 °C

    180 GPa

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    500.0 °C

    173 GPa

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    600.0 °C

    166 GPa

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    700.0 °C

    158 GPa

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    800.0 °C

    150 GPa

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    900.0 °C

    143 GPa

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    1000.0 °C

    134 GPa

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    1100.0 °C

    126 GPa

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    1200.0 °C

    122 GPa

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    Elongation

    23.0 °C

    12 %

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    for 20-800°C

    Hardness, Brinell

    23.0 °C

    277 [-]

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    min., typical mechanical property for rod and bar in the solution annealed condition, >331, rod, bar, solution-annealed and age hardened condition

    Reduction of area

    23.0 °C

    15 %

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    for 20 to 800°C

    Tensile strength

    20.0 °C

    1280 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    100.0 °C

    1280 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    200.0 °C

    1250 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    300.0 °C

    1220 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    400.0 °C

    1180 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    500.0 °C

    1150 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    600.0 °C

    1060 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    650.0 °C

    1000 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    700.0 °C

    1040 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    750.0 °C

    880 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    800.0 °C

    780 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

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    Yield strength Rp0.2

    20.0 °C

    1030 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    100.0 °C

    1060 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    200.0 °C

    1040 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    300.0 °C

    1020 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    400.0 °C

    1000 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    500.0 °C

    980 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    600.0 °C

    950 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    650.0 °C

    860 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    700.0 °C

    870 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    750.0 °C

    760 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    800.0 °C

    640 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

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    Thermal

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Coefficient of thermal expansion

    20.0 °C

    1.41E-5 1/K

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    100.0 °C

    1.41E-5 1/K

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    200.0 °C

    1.41E-5 1/K

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    300.0 °C

    1.42E-5 1/K

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    400.0 °C

    1.44E-5 1/K

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    500.0 °C

    1.48E-5 1/K

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    600.0 °C

    1.53E-5 1/K

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    700.0 °C

    1.64E-5 1/K

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    800.0 °C

    1.7E-5 1/K

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    900.0 °C

    1.74E-5 1/K

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    Melting point

    1257 - 1342 °C

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    Specific heat capacity

    20.0 °C

    460 J/(kg·K)

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    100.0 °C

    458 J/(kg·K)

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    200.0 °C

    468 J/(kg·K)

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    300.0 °C

    485 J/(kg·K)

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    400.0 °C

    501 J/(kg·K)

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    500.0 °C

    514 J/(kg·K)

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    600.0 °C

    533 J/(kg·K)

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    700.0 °C

    604 J/(kg·K)

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    800.0 °C

    615 J/(kg·K)

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    900.0 °C

    626 J/(kg·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    637 J/(kg·K)

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    1100.0 °C

    635 J/(kg·K)

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    1200.0 °C

    658 J/(kg·K)

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    Thermal conductivity

    20.0 °C

    11.5 W/(m·K)

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    100.0 °C

    12.1 W/(m·K)

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    200.0 °C

    13.5 W/(m·K)

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    300.0 °C

    15.2 W/(m·K)

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    400.0 °C

    17.1 W/(m·K)

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    500.0 °C

    18.8 W/(m·K)

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    600.0 °C

    20.6 W/(m·K)

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    700.0 °C

    24.1 W/(m·K)

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    800.0 °C

    24.2 W/(m·K)

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    900.0 °C

    25 W/(m·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    25.8 W/(m·K)

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    1100.0 °C

    26.6 W/(m·K)

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    1200.0 °C

    28.7 W/(m·K)

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    Electrical

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Electrical resistivity

    20.0 °C

    1.18E-6 Ω·m

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    100.0 °C

    1.2E-6 Ω·m

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    200.0 °C

    1.23E-6 Ω·m

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    300.0 °C

    1.25E-6 Ω·m

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    400.0 °C

    1.27E-6 Ω·m

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    500.0 °C

    1.28E-6 Ω·m

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    600.0 °C

    1.3E-6 Ω·m

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    700.0 °C

    1.31E-6 Ω·m

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    800.0 °C

    1.32E-6 Ω·m

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    900.0 °C

    1.33E-6 Ω·m

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    1000.0 °C

    1.34E-6 Ω·m

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    1100.0 °C

    1.18E-6 Ω·m

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    1200.0 °C

    1.2E-6 Ω·m

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    Magnetic

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Curie temperature

    -195 °C

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    Typical material property in solution annealed condition, Solution annealed and age hardened: -112 °C

    Relative magnetic permeability

    23.0 °C

    1 [-]

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    max.

    Chemical properties

    PropertyValueComment

    Aluminium

    0.2 - 0.8 %

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    Bismuth

    3E-5 %

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    max.

    Boron

    6E-3 %

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    max.

    Carbon

    0.08 %

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    max.

    Chromium

    17 - 21 %

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    Cobalt

    1 %

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    max.

    Copper

    0.3 %

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    max.

    Iron

    Balance

    Lead

    5E-4 %

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    max.

    Manganese

    0.35 %

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    max.

    Molybdenum

    2.8 - 3.3 %

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    Nickel

    50 - 55 %

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    Niobium

    4.75 - 5.5 %

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    Phosphorus

    0.02 %

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    max.

    Selenium

    3E-4 %

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    max.

    Silicon

    0.35 %

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    max.

    Sulfur

    0.015 %

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    max.

    Tantalum

    0.05 %

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    max

    Titanium

    0.65 - 1.15 %

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    Technological properties

    Property
    Application areas

    Based on its high-temperature resistance up to 700 °C, its excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, and its good workability, VDM® Alloy 718 is used in many demanding applications. Originally, it was developed and used for static and rotating components in aircraft turbines such as housings, mounting elements and turbine disks, where tough requirements apply for creep resistance and fatigue behavior, in particular for the rotating applications. Due to its properties, its good workability and efficiency, the material is additionally widely used for static and rotating components in stationary gas turbines, rocket drives and spacecraft, motor vehicle turbo chargers, high-strength screws, springs and mounting elements, and for heat-resistant tools in forgeries, extruders and separating shearers. The variant VDM® Alloy 718 CTP, which is laid out specifically for the requirements of the oil and gas industry, finds increasing uses in drilling equipment and pump shafts. The components used must ensure an efficient and safe oil and gas extraction with increasing drilling hole depth and pressures and temperatures becoming more critical, and withstand the acid gas environment (H₂S, CO₂, chloride) that is prevalent there (see special data sheet VDM® Alloy 718 CTP).

    Cold Forming

    Cold working should take place in the solution-annealed condition. The material has a higher work hardening rate than austenitic stainless steels. This must be taken into account during design and selection of forming tools and equipment and during the planning of the forming processes.

    Corrosion properties

    Based on the high chrome and molybdenum concentrations, VDM® Alloy 718 has a good resistance in many media against abrasive and local corrosion such as pitting. By virtue of its high nickel content, VDM® Alloy 718 also has good resistance against stress corrosion cracking.

    General machinability

    While VDM® Alloy 718 in the solution annealed condition is easier to process and the strain on tools is less, better surface quality is achieved in the hardened condition. The best results in terms of the surface quality of the finished product are achieved by pre-treatment before hardening and by finishing in the hardened condition. As the alloy is more prone to work-hardening than other low alloyed materials, low cutting speeds and appropriate feed rates should be used and the tool should stay engaged at all times. Sufficient chip depths are important to get below the work-hardened surface layer.

    Heat Treatment

    Through various heat treatments, the mechanical properties of VDM® Alloy 718 can be adjusted specifically. In the solution-annealed condition, the material can be processed and worked more easily. In the solution-annealed and age hardened condition, VDM® Alloy 718 has a high mechanical strength. The solution-annealed condition is obtained through a heat treatment in the temperature range from 940 to 1,065°C (1,724 to 1,949°F). Here, for example, annealing by inserting into a pre-heated furnace at a temperature of 980°C (1,796°F) for 1 hour is common. Cooling can be done by placing the workpiece in water or oil or also in open air. The hardening takes place by annealing in the temperature range from 620 to 790°C (1,148 to 1,454°F). A two-stage heat treatment is common here with insertion in a pre-heated furnace at 720°C (1,328°F) for 8 hours, followed by a furnace cool down to 620°C (1,148°F) and repeated holding for 8 hours. Cooling is usually done in open air.

    Hot forming

    The hot working should generally be conducted after the homogenization with subsequent cooling in air. It should be done evenly in order to receive a homogeneous structure and to prevent the formation of a duplex grain structure.

    Other

    VDM® Alloy 718 has an austenitic structure; multiple phases can be precipitated. By means of different heat treatments, graduated mechanical properties of the material can be reached. The excellent mechanical properties of VDM® Alloy 718 result from the γ’’-formation during the precipitation hardening.

    Welding

    It must be ensured that work is carried out using targeted heat application and low heat input. The interpass temperature should not exceed 100°C (212°F). The stringer bead technique is recommended. In principle, checking of welding parameters is necessary.