Sandvik 253 MA

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Description

Sandvik 253 MA is an austenitic chromium-nickel steel alloyed with nitrogen and rare earth metals. The grade is characterized by:


  • High creep strength
  • Very good resistance to isothermal and, particularly, cyclic oxidation
  • Good structural stability at high temperatures
  • Good weldability

  • More technical information and charts that are relevant to the materials corrosion, mechanical and physical performance are displayed in the figures on the right side of the material page.


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    Sandvik 253 MA


    Datasheet updated 2017-01-19 12:21 (supersedes all previous editions)

    Related Standards

    Equivalent Materials

    This material data has been provided by Sandvik Materials Technology.

    All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
    Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.

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    Properties

    General

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Density

    23.0 °C

    7.8 g/cm³

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    Recycled Content

    82.1 %

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    Average recycled content

    Mechanical

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Creep strength 10^4 cycles

    575.0 °C

    167 MPa

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    at 10000h

    600.0 °C

    138 MPa

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    at 10000h

    625.0 °C

    112 MPa

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    at 10000h

    650.0 °C

    94 MPa

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    at 10000h

    675.0 °C

    76 MPa

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    at 10000h

    700.0 °C

    62 MPa

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    at 10000h

    725.0 °C

    50 MPa

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    at 10000h

    750.0 °C

    41 MPa

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    at 10000h

    775.0 °C

    33 MPa

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    at 10000h

    800.0 °C

    27 MPa

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    at 10000h

    825.0 °C

    22 MPa

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    at 10000h

    850.0 °C

    18 MPa

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    at 10000h

    875.0 °C

    15 MPa

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    at 10000h

    900.0 °C

    13 MPa

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    at 10000h

    925.0 °C

    11 MPa

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    at 10000h

    950.0 °C

    9.6 MPa

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    at 10000h

    975.0 °C

    8.2 MPa

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    at 10000h

    1000.0 °C

    7 MPa

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    at 10000h

    1025.0 °C

    6.2 MPa

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    at 10000h

    1050.0 °C

    5.5 MPa

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    at 10000h

    1075.0 °C

    4.9 MPa

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    at 10000h

    1100.0 °C

    4.3 MPa

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    at 10000h

    Creep strength 10^5 cycles

    525.0 °C

    162 MPa

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    at 100000h

    550.0 °C

    128 MPa

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    at 100000h

    575.0 °C

    102 MPa

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    at 100000h

    600.0 °C

    82 MPa

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    at 100000h

    625.0 °C

    64 MPa

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    at 100000h

    650.0 °C

    52 MPa

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    at 100000h

    675.0 °C

    43 MPa

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    at 100000h

    700.0 °C

    33 MPa

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    at 100000h

    725.0 °C

    27 MPa

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    at 100000h

    750.0 °C

    22 MPa

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    at 100000h

    775.0 °C

    18 MPa

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    at 100000h

    800.0 °C

    15 MPa

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    at 100000h

    825.0 °C

    12 MPa

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    at 100000h

    850.0 °C

    10 MPa

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    at 100000h

    875.0 °C

    8.8 MPa

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    at 100000h

    900.0 °C

    7.5 MPa

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    at 100000h

    925.0 °C

    6.6 MPa

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    at 100000h

    950.0 °C

    5.7 MPa

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    at 100000h

    975.0 °C

    5 MPa

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    at 100000h

    1000.0 °C

    4.3 MPa

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    at 100000h

    1025.0 °C

    3.8 MPa

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    at 100000h

    1050.0 °C

    3.3 MPa

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    at 100000h

    1075.0 °C

    3 MPa

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    at 100000h

    1100.0 °C

    2.6 MPa

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    at 100000h

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    Elastic modulus

    20.0 °C

    200 GPa

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    200.0 °C

    185 GPa

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    400.0 °C

    170 GPa

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    600.0 °C

    155 GPa

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    800.0 °C

    135 GPa

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    1000.0 °C

    120 GPa

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    Elongation

    23.0 °C

    40 %

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    min.

    Elongation A2

    23.0 °C

    40 %

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    min.

    Hardness, Vickers

    23.0 °C

    190 [-]

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    Tensile strength

    20.0 °C

    650 - 850 MPa

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    100.0 °C

    550 MPa

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    200.0 °C

    475 MPa

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    300.0 °C

    440 MPa

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    400.0 °C

    425 MPa

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    500.0 °C

    400 MPa

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    600.0 °C

    340 MPa

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    Yield strength Rp0.1

    20.0 °C

    350 MPa

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    min.

    100.0 °C

    265 MPa

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    min.

    200.0 °C

    215 MPa

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    min.

    300.0 °C

    200 MPa

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    min.

    400.0 °C

    190 MPa

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    min.

    500.0 °C

    180 MPa

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    min.

    600.0 °C

    165 MPa

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    min.

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    Yield strength Rp0.2

    20.0 °C

    310 MPa

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    min.

    100.0 °C

    225 MPa

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    min.

    200.0 °C

    189 MPa

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    min.

    300.0 °C

    170 MPa

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    min.

    400.0 °C

    160 MPa

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    min.

    500.0 °C

    150 MPa

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    min.

    600.0 °C

    140 MPa

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    min.

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    Thermal

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Coefficient of thermal expansion

    100.0 °C

    1.65E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    200.0 °C

    1.7E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    300.0 °C

    1.7E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    400.0 °C

    1.75E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    500.0 °C

    1.8E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    600.0 °C

    1.8E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    700.0 °C

    1.85E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    800.0 °C

    1.9E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    900.0 °C

    1.9E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    1000.0 °C

    1.95E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

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    Max service temperature

    1150 °C

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    Specific heat capacity

    20.0 °C

    490 J/(kg·K)

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    100.0 °C

    515 J/(kg·K)

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    200.0 °C

    540 J/(kg·K)

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    300.0 °C

    565 J/(kg·K)

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    400.0 °C

    580 J/(kg·K)

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    500.0 °C

    600 J/(kg·K)

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    600.0 °C

    615 J/(kg·K)

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    700.0 °C

    630 J/(kg·K)

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    800.0 °C

    645 J/(kg·K)

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    900.0 °C

    655 J/(kg·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    665 J/(kg·K)

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    1100.0 °C

    680 J/(kg·K)

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    Thermal conductivity

    20.0 °C

    13 W/(m·K)

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    100.0 °C

    14 W/(m·K)

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    200.0 °C

    16 W/(m·K)

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    300.0 °C

    18 W/(m·K)

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    400.0 °C

    20 W/(m·K)

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    500.0 °C

    21 W/(m·K)

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    600.0 °C

    23 W/(m·K)

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    700.0 °C

    24 W/(m·K)

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    800.0 °C

    25 W/(m·K)

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    900.0 °C

    26 W/(m·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    28 W/(m·K)

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    1100.0 °C

    29 W/(m·K)

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    Electrical

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Electrical resistivity

    20.0 °C

    8.4E-7 Ω·m

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    100.0 °C

    9.1E-7 Ω·m

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    200.0 °C

    9.7E-7 Ω·m

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    300.0 °C

    1.02E-6 Ω·m

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    400.0 °C

    1.07E-6 Ω·m

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    500.0 °C

    1.11E-6 Ω·m

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    600.0 °C

    1.15E-6 Ω·m

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    700.0 °C

    1.18E-6 Ω·m

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    800.0 °C

    1.21E-6 Ω·m

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    900.0 °C

    1.23E-6 Ω·m

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    1000.0 °C

    1.26E-6 Ω·m

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    1100.0 °C

    1.29E-6 Ω·m

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    Magnetic

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Relative magnetic permeability

    23.0 °C

    1 [-]

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    Chemical properties

    PropertyValueComment

    Carbon

    0.08 %

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    Cerium

    0.05 %

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    To cerium should be added the quantity of other rare earth metals, since the the additive takes the form of misch metal containing about 50% Ce.

    Chromium

    21 %

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    Iron

    Balance

    Manganese

    0.8 %

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    max.

    Nickel

    11 %

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    Nitrogen

    0.17 %

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    Phosphorus

    0.04 %

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    max.

    Silicon

    1.6 %

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    Sulfur

    0.03 %

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    max.

    Technological properties

    Property
    Application areas

    The high creep strength of Sandvik 253 MA, coupled with its excellent oxidation resistance and its good resistance to carburization in constantly carburizing gas, makes it a very suitable material for end uses in which 18/8 steels lack the necessary resistance to oxidation and carburization.

    Sandvik 253 MA is often preferred instead of stainless chromium steels which have insufficient creep strength and structural stability. Furthermore, Sandvik 253 MA can very well take the place of higher alloyed materials such as 25Cr/20Ni steels and Alloy 800H, or even Alloy 600 in certain cases.


    Sandvik 253 MA has come to be used extensively in the metallurgical, petrochemical and power industries. Typical applications are:

  • Tubes in waste heat recovery systems in the metallurgical industry, e.g. recuperators
  • Tubes in heat treatment furnaces, e.g. radiation tubes, thermocouple protection tubes, burner components, furnace rollers
  • Tubes for injection of pulverized coal in blast furnaces
  • Tubing for fluidized-bed combustion plants
  • Furnace tubes for mud incineration plants
  • Tubes for carbon black process gas coolers/air heaters
  • Tubes for the glass and cement industries
  • Styrene reactor tubes
  • EDC cracking tubes
  • Convection tubes in ethylene cracking
  • Air preheater tubes in sulphuric acid gas converters
  • Muffle tubes in continuous wire annealing furnaces

  • Trademark information: 253 MA is a trademark owned by Outokumpu OY

    Certifications

    Approvals: Approved for use in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I, III and VIII, Div. 1 (SA-182, SA-213, SA-240, SA-249 SA-312 and SA-479)

    Cold Forming

    Annealing after cold bending is not normally necessary, but this should be reviewed depending on the degree of bending and the operating conditions. If cold bending has exceeded 10–20%, we recommend solution annealing for tubes that are to be used at temperatures above about 800°C (1450°F), and when the highest possible creep strength is required in the bent tube.

    Corrosion properties

    Air: Sandvik 253 MA has very high resistance to oxidation, especially at cyclically varying temperatures. See Figs. 3 and 4. The service temperature in air should not exceed about 1150°C (2100°F).


    Isothermal oxidation at 1150°C (2100°F) for 100 h results in a corrosion rate of about 0.3 mm/year (13 mpy), and exposure at the same temperature for 1000 h causes about 0.2 mm/year (9 mpy).


    Cyclic oxidation at 1150°C (2100°F) for 5 x 24 h, with cooling to room temperature every 24 hours gives a corrosion rate of less than 1.1 mm/year (43 mpy), which is only marginally greater than the corrosion rate at 1000°C (1830°F).

    Cyclic oxidation testing for 1000 h (15 minutes at the testing temperature and 5 minutes at room temperature, making a total of 3000 cycles) places heavy demands on the elasticity and adhesive capacity of the oxide. The test results in Fig. 4 show that the resistance of Sandvik 253 MA in such difficult conditions is superior to that of both ASTM TP310 and EN 1.4828 (ASTM TP309). The very good properties of this grade in cyclic conditions have been achieved by adding rare earth metals and silicon.


    Carburizing atmosphere: Carburization can occur when a material comes into contact with hot gases with high carbon activity, e.g. hydrocarbons. The degree of carburization depends on the composition of the material and on the carbon and oxygen contents of the gas. Thanks to the relatively high chromium content and the addition of silicon and rare earth metals, a protective oxide is easily formed on the surface of Sandvik 253 MA material. Carburization resistance is, therefore, good. Fig. 5 shows carburization after 500 h at different temperatures, in a mixture of about 10% methane and about 90% argon containing 0.5% oxygen. As can be seen, Sandvik 253 MA is less prone to carburization at high temperatures in these conditions than ASTM TP310 and Alloy 800H. In alternately oxidizing and carburizing atmospheres and carburizing slags, Sandvik 253 MA is slightly more prone to carburization than steels of higher chromium and/or nickel content.


    Other gaseous atmospheres: In addition to its very good oxidation resistance in air, Sandvik 253 MA is also highly resistant to other atmospheres. The highly protective oxide layer makes it possible to use this steel at high temperatures in atmospheres containing sulphur and other aggressive compounds. Sandvik 253 MA is more resistant than the higher alloyed 25Cr/20Ni steels to combustion gas attacks in cyclic conditions. It has an equivalent resistance, compared to the same grades, in conditions which are virtually isothermal. Sandvik 253 MA can also be used in nitrogen-containing atmospheres provided that the gas contains enough oxygen to form a protective oxide layer. In gas shields containing little or no oxygen the resistance of Sandvik 253 MA is inferior to that of Alloy 800H and 25Cr/20Ni steels as illustrated in Fig. 6. Thus, the grade is not recommended for use in muffle tubes using cracked ammonia gas.


    Salt and metal melts: Compared with conventional austenitic stainless steels, Sandvik 253 MA has good resistance to cyanide melts and neutral salt melts and also to metal melts, e.g. lead, at high temperatures. Its resistance to metal melts is to a great extent determined by the oxygen content of the melt. As with other alloyed steels, corrosion is greatest at the surface of the metal bath.


    Wet corrosion: Sandvik 253 MA is not generally used in conditions requiring great resistance to wet corrosion. The steel is, however, slightly more resistant than ASTM TP304 to stress corrosion cracking in chloride bearing aqueous solutions. Its resistance is more or less the same as that of ASTM TP316.

    Heat Treatment

    Tubes are delivered in the heat treated condition. If another heat treatment is needed after further processing the following is recommended:

    Stress relieving: 850-950°C (1560-1740°F), 10-15 minutes, cooling in air.

    Solution annealing: 1050–1150°C (1920–2100°F), 5–20 minutes, rapid cooling in air, gas or water.

    Hot forming

    Hot bending should be carried out at 1100–850°C (2050–1560°F) and should be followed by solution annealing.

    Other

    Forms of supply:

    Seamless tube and pipe in Sandvik 253 MA is supplied in dimensions up to 260 mm (10.2 in.) outside diameter in the solution-annealed and white-pickled condition or solution annealed by a bright-annealing process.


    Sandvik 253 MA is also supplied in forms of:

  • Fittings
  • Strip
  • Wire, drawn or ground

  • Bar steel
  • Plate, sheet and wide strip
  • Structural Stability

    Because Sandvik 253 MA contains less chromium, and because of the addition of nitrogen the grade is less prone to sigma phase embrittlement than 25Cr/20Ni steels. For more information please take a look at the figure on the right side of the material page.

    Welding

    The weldability of Sandvik 253MA is good. Suitable methods of fusion welding are manual metal-arc welding (MMA/SMAW) and gas-shielded arc welding, with the TIG/GTAW method as first choice.In common with all austenitic stainless steels, Sandvik 253MA has low thermal conductivity and high thermal expansion. Welding plans should therefore be carefully selected in advance, so that distortions of the welded joint are minimized. If residual stresses are a concern, solution annealing can be performed after welding.


    For Sandvik 253MA, heat-input of <1.5 kJ/mm and interpass temperature of <150°C (300°F) are recommended.


    Recommended filler metals:

    • TIG/GTAW or MIG/GMAW welding
      • 22.12.HT (e.g. Exaton 22.12.HT)
    • MMA/SMAW welding
      • 22.12.HTR (e.g. Exaton 22.12.HTR)