Sandvik 254 SMO is a high-alloy austenitic stainless steel developed for use in seawater and other aggressive chloride-bearing media. The steel is characterized by the following properties:
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Datasheet updated 2019-11-06 09:12 (supersedes all previous editions)
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8 g/cm³ at 23 °C
Coefficient of thermal expansionα
1.6E-5 1/K at 100 °C
for 30°C to the mentioned temperature
Specific heat capacitycp
485 J/(kg·K) at 20 °C
10 W/(m·K) at 20 °C
Sandvik 254 SMO is used in the following applications:
Trademark information: 254 SMO is a trademark owned by Outokumpu OY.
The excellent formability of Sandvik 254 SMO permits cold bending to very tight bending radii. Annealing is not normally necessary after cold bending.
At high temperatures: Intermetallic phases are precipitated within the temperature range of 600–1000°C (1110–1830°F). Therefore, the steel should not be exposed to these temperatures for prolonged periods.
In solutions containing halides such as chloride and bromide ions, conventional stainless steels can be readily attacked by local corrosion in the form of pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion or stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In acid environments, the presence of halides also accelerates general corrosion.
General corrosion: In pure sulphuric acid, Sandvik 254 SMO is much more resistant than ASTM TP316, and in naturally aerated sulphuric acid containing chloride ions Sandvik 254 SMO exhibits higher resistance than '904L', see Figure 2.
Intergranular corrosion: Sandvik 254 SMO has a very low carbon content. This means that there is very little risk of carbide precipitation during heating, for example when welding. The steel passes the Strauss test (ASTM A262, practice E) even after sensitizing for one hour at 600–1000°C (1110–1830°F). However, due to the high alloying content of the steel, inter-metallic phases can precipitate at the grain boundaries in the temperature range 600–1000°C (1110–1830°F). These precipitations do not involve any risk of intergranular corrosion in the environments in which the steel is intended to be used. Thus, welding can be carried out without any risk of intergranular corrosion.
Pitting and crevice corrosion: The pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steel is primarily determined by the content of chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen. Manufacture and fabrication, e.g. welding, are also of vital importance for the actual performance in service. A parameter for comparing the resistance to pitting in chloride environments is the PRE number (Pitting Resistance Equivalent). The PRE is defined as, in weight-%, PRE = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo + 16 x %N.
PRE-value for Sandvik 254 SMO = ≥42,5.
The results of laboratory determination of the critical pitting temperature (CPT) in 3 % NaCl are shown in Figure 3, where it can be seen that Sandvik 254 SMO possesses very good resistance in water containing chlorides. Sandvik 254 SMO is, therefore, a suitable material for use in seawater.
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC): Ordinary austenitic steels of the ASTM TP304 and TP316 type are prone to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in chloride-containing solutions at temperatures exceeding about 60°C (140°F). For the austenitic steels, resistance to SCC increases with higher nickel and molybdenum contents. The tables below show the results of two accelerated tests, clearly demonstrating that Sandvik 254 SMO has a very good resistance to SCC.
Stress corrosion cracking tests in boiling 25% NaCl solution, pH=1.5. U-bend specimens.
Stress corrosion cracking tests. Drop evaporation method* Stress: 0.9xRp0.2
Crevice corrosion: The weak point of conventional stainless steels is their limited resistance to crevice corrosion. In seawater, for example, there is a considerably greater risk of crevice corrosion under gaskets, deposits or fouling. Tests in natural seawater at 60°C (140°F) have shown that Sandvik 254 SMO can be exposed for prolonged periods without suffering crevice corrosion. Figure 4 shows the results of accelerated crevice corrosion tests.
The tubes are delivered in heat treated condition. If additional heat treatment is needed due to further processing the following is recommended.
Solution annealing: 1150–1200°C (2100–2190°F), quenching in water. Thin-walled tubes min. 1130°C (2060°F), quenching in air/water.
Sandvik 254 SMO is a high alloyed austenitic stainless steel and thus tougher inserts in metal cutting are needed than is the case for lower alloyed austenitic grades. When machining Sandvik 254 SMO considerably lower cutting speeds are recommended compared to the grades Sanmac 304/304L and Sanmac 316/316L, which have improved machinability.
Avoid abrasion against copper/copper alloys or other similar metals which, if present in metallic form, can cause cracks during subsequent welding, hot processing or heat treatment.
Forms of supply:
Seamless tube and pipe are supplied in dimensions up to 230 mm (9.06 in.) outside diameter. The delivery condition is either solution annealed and white pickled, or solution annealed in a bright annealing process.
Other forms of supply:
The weldability of Sandvik 254 SMO is good. Suitable methods of fusion welding are manual metal-arc welding (MMA/SMAW) and gas-shielded arc welding, with the TIG/GTAW method as first choice.
In common with all fully austenitic stainless steels, Sandvik 254 SMO has low thermal conductivity and high thermal expansion. Welding plans should therefore be carefully selected in advance, so that distortions of the welded joint are minimized. If residual stresses are a concern, solution annealing can be performed after welding.
For Sandvik 254 SMO, heat-input of <1.5 kJ/mm and interpass temperature of <100°C (210°F) are recommended. A string bead welding technique should be used.
Nickel alloys with high molybdenum and chromium must be used as filler metals to have good corrosion resistance in the as-welded condition.
Recommended filler metals:
This material data has been provided by Sandvik Materials Technology.