Sandvik 4C54

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Description

Sandvik 4C54 is a ferritic, heat resisting, stainless chromium steel, characterized by:


  • Extremely good resistance to reducing sulphurous gases
  • Very good resistance to oxidation in air
  • Good resistance to oil-ash corrosion
  • Good resistance to molten copper, lead and tin

  • This steel can be used at temperatures up to 1100°C (2010°F). However, allowance should be made for low creep strength at the highest temperatures in order to avoid distortion due to the mass of the steel.


    More technical information and charts that are relevant to the materials corrosion, mechanical and physical performance are displayed in the figures on the right side of the material page.


    Datasheet URL:

    Sandvik 4C54


    Datasheet updated 2019-08-28 09:41 (supersedes all previous editions)

    Related Standards

    Equivalent Materials

    This material data has been provided by Sandvik Materials Technology.

    All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
    Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.

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    Properties

    General

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Density

    23.0 °C

    7.6 g/cm³

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    Recycled Content

    82.1 %

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    Average recycled content

    Mechanical

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Creep strength 10^4 cycles

    600.0 °C

    38 MPa

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    at 10000h

    700.0 °C

    10 MPa

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    at 10000h

    800.0 °C

    4.8 MPa

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    at 10000h

    900.0 °C

    3.4 MPa

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    at 10000h

    1000.0 °C

    1.9 MPa

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    at 10000h

    Creep strength 10^5 cycles

    600.0 °C

    29 MPa

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    at 100000h, average values

    700.0 °C

    7 MPa

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    at 100000h, average values

    800.0 °C

    3.3 MPa

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    at 100000h, average values

    900.0 °C

    2.5 MPa

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    at 100000h, average values

    1000.0 °C

    1.6 MPa

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    at 100000h, average values

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    Elastic modulus

    20.0 °C

    195 GPa

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    200.0 °C

    190 GPa

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    400.0 °C

    180 GPa

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    600.0 °C

    145 GPa

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    800.0 °C

    125 GPa

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    1000.0 °C

    120 GPa

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    Elongation

    23.0 °C

    20 %

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    min.

    Elongation A2

    23.0 °C

    18 %

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    min.

    Hardness, Vickers

    23.0 °C

    190 [-]

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    Tensile strength

    20.0 °C

    500 - 700 MPa

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    100.0 °C

    450 MPa

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    200.0 °C

    430 MPa

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    300.0 °C

    430 MPa

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    400.0 °C

    430 MPa

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    500.0 °C

    375 MPa

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    525.0 °C

    335 MPa

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    550.0 °C

    290 MPa

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    Yield strength Rp0.1

    20.0 °C

    320 MPa

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    min.

    100.0 °C

    280 MPa

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    min.

    200.0 °C

    260 MPa

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    min.

    300.0 °C

    250 MPa

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    min.

    400.0 °C

    245 MPa

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    min.

    500.0 °C

    240 MPa

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    min.

    525.0 °C

    230 MPa

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    min.

    550.0 °C

    200 MPa

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    min.

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    Yield strength Rp0.2

    20.0 °C

    280 MPa

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    min.

    100.0 °C

    235 MPa

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    min.

    200.0 °C

    215 MPa

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    min.

    300.0 °C

    200 MPa

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    min.

    400.0 °C

    185 MPa

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    min.

    500.0 °C

    175 MPa

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    min.

    525.0 °C

    165 MPa

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    min.

    550.0 °C

    150 MPa

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    min.

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    Thermal

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Coefficient of thermal expansion

    100.0 °C

    1E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    200.0 °C

    1E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    300.0 °C

    1.05E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    400.0 °C

    1.1E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    500.0 °C

    1.1E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    600.0 °C

    1.15E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    700.0 °C

    1.15E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    800.0 °C

    1.2E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    900.0 °C

    1.3E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

    1000.0 °C

    1.35E-5 1/K

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    for 30°C to the mentioned temperature

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    Specific heat capacity

    20.0 °C

    475 J/(kg·K)

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    100.0 °C

    520 J/(kg·K)

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    200.0 °C

    555 J/(kg·K)

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    300.0 °C

    595 J/(kg·K)

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    400.0 °C

    625 J/(kg·K)

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    500.0 °C

    710 J/(kg·K)

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    600.0 °C

    795 J/(kg·K)

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    700.0 °C

    720 J/(kg·K)

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    800.0 °C

    695 J/(kg·K)

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    900.0 °C

    680 J/(kg·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    715 J/(kg·K)

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    1100.0 °C

    760 J/(kg·K)

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    Thermal conductivity

    20.0 °C

    20 W/(m·K)

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    100.0 °C

    21 W/(m·K)

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    200.0 °C

    22 W/(m·K)

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    300.0 °C

    23 W/(m·K)

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    400.0 °C

    23 W/(m·K)

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    500.0 °C

    24 W/(m·K)

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    600.0 °C

    25 W/(m·K)

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    700.0 °C

    26 W/(m·K)

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    800.0 °C

    27 W/(m·K)

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    900.0 °C

    28 W/(m·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    30 W/(m·K)

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    1100.0 °C

    34 W/(m·K)

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    Electrical

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Electrical resistivity

    20.0 °C

    6.9E-7 Ω·m

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    100.0 °C

    7.5E-7 Ω·m

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    200.0 °C

    8.4E-7 Ω·m

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    300.0 °C

    9.2E-7 Ω·m

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    400.0 °C

    1E-6 Ω·m

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    500.0 °C

    1.08E-6 Ω·m

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    600.0 °C

    1.14E-6 Ω·m

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    700.0 °C

    1.19E-6 Ω·m

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    800.0 °C

    1.22E-6 Ω·m

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    900.0 °C

    1.24E-6 Ω·m

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    1000.0 °C

    1.25E-6 Ω·m

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    Chemical properties

    PropertyValueComment

    Carbon

    0.2 %

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    max.

    Chromium

    26.5 %

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    Iron

    Balance

    Manganese

    0.8 %

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    Nitrogen

    0.2 %

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    Phosphorus

    0.03 %

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    max.

    Silicon

    0.5 %

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    Sulfur

    0.015 %

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    max.

    Technological properties

    Property
    Application areas

    Sandvik 4C54 should be chosen mainly for service at temperatures above 700°C (1290°F) where the excellent resistance of the material to slag corrosion and sulphidizing gases is particularly advantageous. Typical applications for Sandvik 4C54 are:

  • Recuperators in the metallurgical and glass industries
  • Thermocouple protection tubes
  • Sootblower tubes
  • Injection nozzles
  • Muffle tubes in continous wire annealing furnaces
  • Certifications

    Since Sandvik 4C54 has very large creep rupture elongation, often more than 100%, and little resistance to creep, it is necessary to allow for considerable creep deformation long before rupture occurs. At normal service temperatures, i.e. over 700 °C (1290 °F), even the dead weight of the tubes can cause stresses leading to large deformations.

    Careful attention must be given, therefore to the way in which tubes are supported. Sandvik 4C54, in common with other ferritic chromium steels, is less tough than austenitic stainless steels in the as delivered condition. The transition temperature of Sandvik 4C54 is around 100-150 °C (210-300 °F). After a period of operation, toughness at room temperature can decrease further. For this reason, large impact and similar stresses should be avoided during repairs.

    The graph in Fig. 1 can be used to determine the temperature above which, design calculations should be based on creep rupture strength rather than proof strength.

    Cold Forming

    For cold bending, cold worked tubes are recommended. Annealing is usually not necessary after cold bending.


    When straightening or bending tubes that have already been in service, we recommend the following:


  • Tubes that have been in service at 400-550°C (750-1020°F): Heat for a brief period to a temperature above 600°C (1110°F), cool in air, followed by preheating to 200-400°C (390-750°F).
  • Tubes that have been in service above 550°C (1020°F): Preheat to 200-400°C (390-750°F).
  • Corrosion properties

    Air: Sandvik 4C54 is highly resistant to oxidation, both at constant and at cyclically varying temperatures (see Fig. 2). The service temperature in air should not exceed about 1100°C (2010°F).


    Isothermal oxidation: at 1100°C (2010°F) for 1000h results in a weight loss of about 0.25 g/m2 h after removal of the oxide layer.


    Cyclic oxidation: at 1100°C (2010°F) for 5 x 24 h, with cooling to room temperature every 24 hours, gives a weight loss of less than 1.5 g /m2 h after removal of the oxide layer.


    Hot corrosion / sulphidation: Owing to its high chromium content and the absence of nickel, Sandvik 4C54 has very good resistance in sulphidizing gases and salts. The steel has relatively good resistance to slags containing vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulphate, for example, which are extremely aggressive at temperatures above 600°C (1110°F). The results of a corrosion test in combustion gases from heavy oil show that Sandvik 4C54 possesses better resistance than 50Cr50Ni alloy and austenitic high temperature steels in such environments (see Fig. 3).


    In other sulphurous flue gases, especially where the oxygen pressure is low (reducing atmosphere), Sandvik 4C54 possesses considerably better resistance than the austenitic steels. In laboratory tests simulating combustion in a fluidized bed, where the oxygen pressure varies between low and high, Sandvik 4C54 exhibits very good resistance. See Fig. 4.

    Nitrogen pick up: Nitrogen pick up can occur in gas mixtures with low oxygen concentrations and high concentrations of nitrogen, cracked ammonia or mixtures of nitrogen and hydrogen. It leads to embrittlement and reduced oxidation resistance. Sandvik 4C54 is more sensitive than austenitic steels to environments where nitrogen pick up can occur.

    Carburizing atmosphere: When a material comes into contact with hot gases containing hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, carburization can occur. The extent of carburization depends on the composition of the material and of the gas.


    The relatively high chromium content of Sandvik 4C54 promotes the formation of a protective oxide layer on the surface of the material, providing some protection against carburization.

    However, because Sandvik 4C54 is ferritic, carburization occurs quickly, if the oxide layer cracks or, if the oxygen content is too low to form a protective oxide layer. For this reason, the material does not possess the same resistance as the austenitic steels, for example, Sandvik 253MA or Sanicro 31HT.


    Metal and salt baths: The ferritic structure of Sandvik 4C54 gives it good resistance in baths of molten copper. It also possesses good resistance in other molten metals, such as lead, tin, bearing metals, brass and magnesium. In these metals, it is a good idea to use replaceable sleeves of ceramic material or graphite, since corrosion is heaviest at the surface of the metal bath. In salt baths for heat treatment etc., such as cyanide and neutral salt baths, austenitic alloys with a high nickel content should be selected instead (e.g. Sanicro 31HT).

    Heat Treatment

    Tubes are delivered in the heat treated condition. If another heat treatment is needed after further processing, the following is recommended:

    Stress relieving: 800-850°C (1470-1560°F), 15-30 minutes, rapid cooling in air.

    Solution annealing: 800-900°C (1470-1650°F), 30-60 minutes, rapid cooling in air.

    Hot forming

    Due to their limitations in ductility at low temperatures, caution must be taken when performing bending of ferritic steels, such as Sandvik 4C54.


    Hot worked tubes should preferably be hot bent, but they can be bent cold, depending on bending radius, diameter, bending equipment, etc. Please contact Sandvik for more information.


    Hot bending is carried out at 1000-800°C (1830-1470°F) and should be followed by annealing, see the Heat treatment section, for details.

    Other

    Forms of supply:

    Seamless tube and pipe in Sandvik 4C54 is supplied in dimensions up to 125 mm outside diameter in the solution annealed and white pickled condition or in the bright annealed condition.


    Stock sizes

    Sandvik 4C54 is stocked in sizes ranging from outside diameter 3/8" to 3" outside diameter. Additional data concerning sizes and finishes is available on request from your nearest Sandvik office.

    Structural Stability

    Temperatures of about 400-550°C (750-1020°F) should be avoided for even short periods of time, whether the steel is in service or merely being held at that temperature, since severe embrittlement, known as 475 oC (887oF). embrittlement, can occur. This is noticeable after the tubes have cooled to room temperature. However, the steel can be restored to its original condition by short term heating at a temperature above 600°C (1110°F). Embrittlement can also occur as a result of sigma phase formation after prolonged service at 550-750°C (1020-1380°F).

    Welding

    The weldability of Sandvik 4C54 is good. Welding must be carried out with preheating at 200-300°C (390-570°F), subsequent heat treatment is normally required for matching filler metals. Suitable methods of fusion welding are manual metal-arc welding (MMA/SMAW) and gas-shielded arc welding, with the TIG/GTAW method as first choice.


    For Sandvik 4C54, heat-input of <1.5 kJ/mm and interpass temperature of <150°C (300°F) are recommended.


    Recommended filler metals

    • TIG/GTAW welding
      • ISO 14343 S 29 9 / AWS A5.9 ER312 (e.g. Exaton 29.9)
      • ISO 14343 S 25 20 / AWS A5.9 ER310 (e.g. Exaton 25.20.C)
      • ISO 18274 S Ni 6082 / AWS A5.14 ERNiCr-3 (e.g. Exaton Ni72HP)
    • MMA/SMAW welding
      • ISO 3581 E 29 9 R / AWS A5.4 E312-16 (e.g. Exaton 29.9.R)
      • ISO 3581 E 25 20 B / AWS A5.4 E310-16 (e.g. Exaton 25.20.B)
      • ISO 14172 E Ni 6182/ AWS A5.11 ENiCrFe-3 (e.g. Exaton Ni71)


    When using the austenitic stainless-steel wire electrode S 25 20/ER310 and the covered electrode E 25 20 B/E310-16, the higher thermal expansion of the austenitic weld metal must be considered.

    When using nickel alloy wire electrode S Ni 6082/ERNiCr-3 and covered electrode E Ni 6182/ENiCrFe-3, a lower corrosion resistance of the weld metal in a reducing sulphurous environment than the Sandvik 4C54 must be considered.