UGIPERM® 12FM Cold Worked and Magnetic Annealed

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Description

UGIPERM® 12FM is a free-machining ferritic stainless steel containing 12% chromium and an addition of silicon. This grade, which was developed for magnetic applications, has high permeability and a particularly low coercive field. It is specially designed for the manufacture of electromechanical actuators such as electro-injectors or solenoid valves. In addition, its high electrical resistivity makes it possible to obtain short activation times suitable for dynamic magnetic loads, by limiting losses due to eddy currents. The chemical analysis of UGIPERM® 12FM has been optimised to ensure good machinability properties that are particularly suited to the manufacture of mass-produced parts by bar turning. This grade has high magnetic characteristics and medium corrosion resistance, similar to that of 430FR / 4105Si.


In the as-delivered condition, the microstructure of UGIPERM® 12FM consists of ferrite, chromium carbides and manganese sulphides. It is therefore ferromagnetic ("attracted to a magnet").


Optimal magnetic properties are achieved after magnetic annealing that makes it possible to obtain a large-grained recrystallised microstructure. This heat treatment can either be performed by Ugitech on the delivered bars (after cold drawing and before surface finishing) or on machined parts by the customer.


UGIPERM® 12FM has higher magnetic properties than those of grades 430FR / UGI® 4005Si and IMRE / UGI® 4106. It is similar to iron-silicon steels, but has far better corrosion resistance properties, due to its chromium and molybdenum content and approximately double electrical resistivity. The magnetic properties of different ferritic grades, in the form of annealed drawn bars, are compared in the following table (indicative values):


GradeUGIPERM® 12FMUGI 4511IMRE / UGI 4106UGI 4105SiFe-Si steel
Saturation polarisation Js (T)1.691.641.501.54≥ 2.0
Coercive field Hc (A/m)130130150150< 80
Maximum relative permeability µ_rmax2000200016001600≥ 4000
Residual magnetism Br (T)0.80.80.70.60.2 to 0.7
Resistivity ρ (µΩ.mm)790580760780400

Related Standards

Equivalent Materials

This material data has been provided by Ugitech SA.

All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.

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Properties

General

PropertyTemperatureValue

Density

23.0 °C

7.75 g/cm³

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Mechanical

PropertyTemperatureValueComment

Elastic modulus

23.0 °C

200 GPa

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Elongation

23.0 °C

20 %

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min.

Hardness, Brinell

23.0 °C

200 [-]

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max.

Tensile strength

23.0 °C

400 - 580 MPa

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Yield strength Rp0.2

23.0 °C

250 MPa

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min.

Thermal

PropertyTemperatureValueComment

Coefficient of thermal expansion

100.0 °C

1.04E-5 1/K

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for 20 to mentioned temperature

200.0 °C

1.08E-5 1/K

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for 20 to mentioned temperature

300.0 °C

1.15E-5 1/K

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for 20 to mentioned temperature

Specific heat capacity

23.0 °C

460 J/(kg·K)

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Thermal conductivity

23.0 °C

22 W/(m·K)

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Electrical

PropertyTemperatureValue

Electrical resistivity

23.0 °C

7E-7 Ω·m

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Magnetic

PropertyTemperatureValueComment

Coercive force

23.0 °C

180 A/m

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max., Typical value: 130 A/m, EN 60404-4, ASTM A341/A341M

Relative magnetic permeability

23.0 °C

1800 [-]

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min., Typical value: 2000, EN 60404-4, ASTM A341/A341M

Remanence

23.0 °C

1.1 T

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max., Typical value: 0.8 T, EN 60404-4, ASTM A341/A341M

Saturation polarization

23.0 °C

1.65 T

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min., Typical value: 1.69 T, EN 60404-4, ASTM A341/A341M

Chemical properties

PropertyValueComment

Carbon

0.02 %

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max.

Chromium

11 - 13 %

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Copper

0.5 %

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max.

Iron

Balance

Manganese

0.5 %

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max.

Molybdenum

0.2 - 0.7 %

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Nickel

0.5 %

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max.

Phosphorus

0.04 %

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max.

Silicon

1 - 2 %

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Sulfur

0.15 - 0.25 %

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Technological properties

Property
Cold Forming

The UGIPERM® 12FM grade can be used for conventional cold-working processes (wire drawing, bar drawing or forming). However, the metal cannot be significantly cold deformed due to its sulphur content that does not allow it to exceed a 40 % section reduction. The mechanical characteristics increase slightly during cold deformation. The loads on the tools are limited.

Corrosion properties

Overall general corrosion

UGIPERM® 12FM has good corrosion resistance in water and in slightly acid and mildly chlorinated environments. Tests performed in various slightly aggressive environments showed that the corrosion resistance of UGIPERM® 12FM was similar to that of 430FR / 4105Si. The environments to be avoided are phosphoric acid, saline environments, sulphuric acid, sea water, acetic acid and petroleum environments.

UGIPERM® 12FM was subjected to the CM85A test developed by the Society of American Engineers (SAE). The test evaluates the corrosion resistance of a metal in a synthetic gasoline type environment in which, in addition, the chloride content is varied. This environment consists of a mixture of 850 ml ethanol, 75 ml iso-octane, 75 ml toluene, 1 ml distilled water and 0.005 g NaCl (3 ppm) and 0.05 ml formic acid (60 ppm). The test was performed at several chloride levels, as shown on the graph on the right side of the material page and indicates the similar behaviour of UGIPERM® 12FM and 430FR / 4105Si.


Localised corrosion - Pitting corrosion with neutral salt spray test / ASTM standard B117

This test involves spraying a sodium chloride solution, 5% by mass (0.86 moles/litre of NaCl at 35°C, neutral pH) into an enclosure. The exposure time after which the first corrosion spots and run-outs appear is determined visually. The result of this test greatly depends on the grade, as well as on the surface finish tested.

UGIPERM® 12FM provides reasonable resistance to the salt spray corrosion test (ASTM B117). It will rust before 300 hours of exposure, but will nevertheless withstand corrosion far better than Fe-Si magnetic steels.

General machinability

Thanks to its high sulphur content, UGIPERM® 12FM offers a high level of machinability, similar to those of grades UGI4105Si, UGI4106 or even UGI4114. Therefore, contrary to what is commonly observed on ferritic stainless steel with a low or medium sulphur level, the phenomenon of chips sticking to the cutting tools is unusual with UGIPERM® 12FM. This makes it easier to guarantee the dimensions of the machined parts and to ensure that the surface finish of the components is of very high quality. Finally, the excellent chip breakability of UGIPERM® 12FM prevents machine outages due to chip entanglement which are commonly encountered when bar turning ferritic grades with a lower sulphur content.

Hot forming

The UGIPERM® 12FM grade can easily be forged at high temperatures between 850°C and 1150°C. The heating temperature must not exceed 1150°C to prevent excessive grain growth. This grade can more easily be transformed and is more ductile than austenitic stainless steels. The stamping loads on UGIPERM® 12FM parts will be minimal. The material can be used to manufacture thin-walled parts, due to its good ductility.

Other

Available products:


ProductShapeFinishToleranceDimensions (mm)
BarsRoundCold-finished by drawing h92.0-28
BarsRoundCold-finished by grindingh8, h7, h62.0-28
BarsRoundCold-finished by machining20-70
BarsHexagonCold-finished by drawing2.5-55
Drawn wire Round0.2-10


For other types, please contact the supplier.