UGIMA® 4362 Hot Rolled, Solution Annealed

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Description

UGIMA® 4362 is an austeno-ferritic stainless steel (Duplex) with better machinability than a standard 1.4362 (UGI® 4362), due mainly to reduced tool wear and better chip breakability.


UGIMA® 4362 complies with the specification of 1.4362 in accordance with EN 10088-3, but retains all the qualities of UGI 4362, namely:


  • Higher mechanical properties (Rm and Rp0.2) than those of a standard 1.4404 (316L), or even a 1.4406 (316LN)
  • Corrosion resistance greater than or equal to that of a standard 1.4404 (316L).

  • UGIMA®4362 exhibits good mechanical properties: its tensile strength and yield strength are therefore significantly higher on bars than those of a standard 1.4404. In addition, this partially ferritic grade has a ductile-fragile transition temperature which, in the case of large-section bars, restricts its use to low-temperature applications


    The chemical composition of UGIMA®4362 is optimised to obtain a two-phase structure containing between 45% and 70% ferrite after solution heat treatment between 950°C and 1050°C followed by rapid cooling.

    The low Mo content makes the grade far less susceptible than 1.4462 to the precipitation of embrittling intermetallic phases (sigma, X). The sigma phase therefore only appears after holding at 700°C for 20 hours.

    However, as for UGI 4362, precipitation of the ' phase at between 350°C and 550°C in UGIMA® 4362 may lead to an embrittlement of the structure. Consequently, the temperature at which UGIMA® 4362 is used must be limited to 300°C.

    Related Standards

    Equivalent Materials

    This material data has been provided by Ugitech SA.

    All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
    Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.

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    Properties

    General

    PropertyValue

    Density

    7.8 g/cm³

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    Mechanical

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Charpy impact energy, V-notch

    100 J

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    min.

    Elastic modulus

    20 °C

    200 GPa

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    100 °C

    194 GPa

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    200 °C

    186 GPa

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    300 °C

    180 GPa

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    Elongation

    25 %

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    min.

    Hardness, Brinell

    260.0

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    max.

    Tensile strength

    600.0 - 830.0 MPa

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    min.

    Thermal

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Coefficient of thermal expansion

    0.000013 1/K

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    20 to 100°C

    0.0000135 1/K

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    20 to 200°C

    0.000014 1/K

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    20 to 300°C

    Specific heat capacity

    20 °C

    500 J/(kg·K)

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    100 °C

    530 J/(kg·K)

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    200 °C

    560 J/(kg·K)

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    300 °C

    590 J/(kg·K)

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    Thermal conductivity

    20 °C

    15 W/(m·K)

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    100 °C

    16 W/(m·K)

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    200 °C

    17 W/(m·K)

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    300 °C

    18 W/(m·K)

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    Electrical

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Electrical resistivity

    20 °C

    0.0000008 Ω·m

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    100 °C

    0.00000085 Ω·m

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    200 °C

    0.0000009 Ω·m

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    300 °C

    0.000001 Ω·m

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    Chemical properties

    PropertyValueComment

    Carbon

    0.03

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    max.

    Chromium

    22.0 - 24.0 %

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    Copper

    0.1 - 0.6000000000000001 %

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    Manganese

    2.0

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    max.

    Molybdenum

    0.1 - 0.6000000000000001 %

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    Nickel

    3.5 - 5.5 %

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    Nitrogen

    0.05 - 0.2 %

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    Phosphorus

    0.035

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    max.

    Silicon

    1.0

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    max.

    Sulfur

    0.015

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    max.

    Technological properties

    Property
    Application areas

    In general, wherever grade 1.4404 (316L) is used.

  • Energy, process
  • Building
  • Food and Agriculture

    Usage limitations:

  • Cryogenic applications (insufficient resistance)
  • Operating temperature greater than 300°C (risk of long-term embrittlement)

    In case of doubt, please contact the supplier.

  • Corrosion properties

    UGIMA®4362 can replace standard 1.4404 for most applications, in particular for:

  • exposure to maritime or urban atmospheres in the building industry
  • the paper pulp industry
  • the chemical industry in general.

    This is illustrated on the right side of the datasheet by our charts showing corrosion in a sodium chloride (NaCl) (pitting corrosion) environment.


    Pitting corrosion This type of corrosion is the most common. Due mainly to the harmful action of chloride ions on sulphide inclusions, it appears visually in the form of small stains from the products of corrosion. This type of corrosion is governed by a stochastic mechanism.

    The pitting corrosion resistance is determined, on a polarisation curve, by the potential above which pitting corrosion forms. It is tested as specified in NF ISO 15158; the higher the potential, the better the resistance to this type of corrosion.

    The following chart shows the pitting potential values in mV/SCE (saturated calomel electrode) for a test specimen taken transversally from a 15 mm to 22 mm diameter drawn bar that has been mechanically polished with SiC1200 paper and immersed in an aqueous solution containing 0.86 moles/litre of NaCl (30.4 g/l of chlorides) at 35°C and neutral pH; this environment is used in the neutral salt spray test (ISO 9227).

    The pitting corrosion resistance of UGIMA® 4362 is the same as that of UGIMA® 4404 and significantly better than that of certain standard 1.4404 steels. For use in extremely aggressive environments (sea water, cleaning products, etc.), please contact the supplier.


    Stress corrosion: tests were carried out in a chlorinated aqueous environment at pH 7 and with an oxygen content of 8 ppm in solution; a stress less than the yield strength is applied for durations of more than 1000 hours; the graph below shows that the stress corrosion resistance of UGIMA® 4362 is better than that of a standard 1.4404. UGIMA® 4362 can be used in this type of conditions up to 130°C, without any risk of stress corrosion, whereas for 1.4404 steel, the limit temperature does not exceed 50°C.

  • General machinability

    Hot rolled bars

    Turning - VB15/0.15: In terms of insert wear (VB15/0.15 tests representative of the potential rough turning productivity), the accessible cutting conditions of UGIMA® 4362 increase on average by 6.5% compared with a standard 1.4362 (UGI 4362); this therefore ranks it above a standard 1.4404 (UGI 4404) and close to UGIMA® 4404HM. The averages of the VB15/0.15 tests obtained with two CNMG 120408 geometry reference inserts are shown on the right side.


    Chip breaking zones (CBZ): In terms of chip breakability (CBZ tests, representative of the ability of the metal to limit machine downtime due to chips becoming entangled around the tools), the number of short chip cutting conditions of UGIMA® 4362 increases significantly compared with those of a standard 1.4362 (UGI 4362); this therefore ranks it at the same level as a standard 1.4404 (UGI 4404) and below a UGIMA® 4404HM.

    This is shown on the charts on the right side of the datasheet, which indicate the number of machining conditions producing short, medium and long chips (amongst those tested*) for two reference turning inserts and for each stainless steel grade tested.


    Drilling : To compare UGIMA® 4362 with UGI 4362, a standard 1.4404 (UGI 4404), and with UGIMA® 4404HM, drilling tests were carried out using two types of drill bits:

  • high-speed steel drill bit (HSS), 4 mm, without central coolant (soluble oil)
  • one-piece coated carbide drill bit, 6 mm, with central coolant (soluble oil)

    Maximum chip flows were consequently defined. These flow rates are the maximum quantities of chips that can be produced per time unit with a drill bit drilling "n" holes without having to change the drill bit. This number "n" corresponds to 1140 holes for an HSS drill bit (i.e. a drilled length of more than 18 m) and 516 holes for a coated carbide drill bit (i.e. a drilled length of more than 12 m). The higher this flow rate, the better the grade.

    With a 4 mm HSS drill bit without central coolant, Due to its wider Optimum Operating Zone, the maximum chip flow of UGIMA® 4362 is higher than that of UGI 4362 and UGI 4404 and similar to that of UGIMA® 4404HM, as shown on the chart on the right side.

    With a 6 mm coated carbide drill bit with central cooling system (15 bar) UGIMA® 4362 has a wider Optimum Operating Zone than that of UGI 4362, giving it a similar maximum chip flow to that of UGI 4404; it is, however, still significantly below that of UGIMA® 4404HM, as shown on the chart on the right side.


    Cold-drawn bars (bar turning)

    To compare UGIMA® 4362 with UGI 4404 and UGIMA® 4404HM, tests were performed on a TORNOS SIGMA 32 screw machine.*

    * it should be noted that the tests compared UGI 4362 with UGIMA®4362, but the very poor chip breakability of UGI 4362 does not allow reliable results to be obtained for most of the cutting operations tested.

    Turning - VB15/0.25: In terms of insert wear (VB15/0.25 tests representative of the potential rough turning - bar turning productivity), UGIMA® 4362 ranks above a standard 1.4404 (UGI 4404), with a productivity which is better by approximately 6%. It is however significantly below that of UGIMA® 4404HM (– 14%). The results of the VB15/0.25 tests obtained with a CCMT 09T308 geometry reference insert are shown in the chart on the right side.

    Axial drilling: As explained above for drilling tests on hot-rolled bars, a maximum chip flow during drilling with a coated carbide drill bit was defined for each grade tested, allowing a certain number of holes (in this case 1000) to be drilled to 4D without having to change tool, without reaming and with internal lubrication (soluble oil).

    The maximum chip flow of UGIMA® 4362 is the same as that of UGI 4404 and 10 % lower than that of UGIMA® 4404HM (see the chart below).

    Cross-cutting: This test determines the cutting speed (in G96) and the feed conditions that allow maximum productivity, while ensuring 1000 cross-cuttings without having to change tool.

    The chart on the right shows the maximum feed obtained for each grade tested, using the same cutting speed for all the grades (60 m/min). UGIMA® 4362 appears as significantly better than UGI 4404 and at the same level as UGIMA® 4404HM.

  • Heat Treatment

    Solution annealing: Solution heat treatment must be carried out at a temperature between 950°C and 1050°C and followed by rapid air or water cooling. This treatment is used to restore grade ductility after hot or cold forming.

    Hot forming

    Forging: The forgeability of UGIMA® 4362 at temperatures between 1250°C and 950°C is satisfactory, although it is lower than that of standard austenitic steels (1.4301, 1.4404). Hot ductility is related to the ferrite content of the grade, which increases with temperature: it will therefore be better for high forging temperatures.


    The mechanical strength of an austeno-ferritic stainless steel is lower than that of an austenitic stainless steel within this temperature range, which results in lower loads on tools; precautionary measures will sometimes be needed to limit unwanted creep deformations.


    The steel must be cooled quickly enough after forging at temperatures below 900°C to preclude the formation of an embrittling sigma phase (air or water quenching). Under such conditions, solution annealing is not mandatory. An end-of-forging temperature of around 900-950°C will result in increased mechanical tensile properties (Rm, Rp0.2) due to work-hardening.

    Other

    Available products:


    ProductShapeFinishToleranceDimensions (mm)
    Hot-rolled barsRoundRolled descaled1322 - 120
    Cold-rolled bars RoundCold-finished by drawing
    Cold-finished by machining
    Ground
    H9
    H10
    H9
    5 – 28
    22 – 70
    22 – 120


    Please contact the supplier for other products and dimensions

    Welding

    Similarly to UGI 4362, UGIMA® 4362 can be friction, resistance or arc-welded with or without filler wire (MIG, TIG, coated electrode, plasma, submerged arc, etc.) or welded by LASER beam, electron beam, etc.

    Due to the absence of Mo in UGIMA® 4362, this grade, unlike other austeno-ferritic stainless steel grades, poses no significant risk of sigma phase formation during welding. It is considerably easier to handle during welding in the same way as austenitic grades such as 304L or 316L. Compared with these grades, UGIMA® 4362 is even less susceptible to thermal cracking.

    However, to optimise weld resistance, it is highly advisable to choose parameters that maximise the welding energy, which will limit the amount of ferrite in the Weld Metal Zone (WMZ) and the Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ).

    Different filler wires can be used to weld UGIMA® 4362, according to the mechanical properties and welding corrosion resistance required. The main ones are as follows:

  • ER 2307 / 23.7NL / UGIWELD® 23.7NL
  • ER 2209 / 22.9.3NL / UGIWELD® 45N
  • ER 309LSi / 23.12LSi / UGIWELD® 309LM

    It is not advisable to preheat the components prior to welding. Components must not be heat treated after welding, although solution annealing is permitted, if necessary.