UGIMA® 4509 Annealed

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Description

UGIMA® 4509 is an improved machinability ferritic stainless steel containing approximately 18% chromium and stabilised with niobium and titanium.


Apart from good corrosion resistance, this grade is characterised by its high suitability for different methods of working, such as machining, cold heading and welding: This UGIMA® version of 4509 makes it possible to achieve significantly greater machining productivity than that obtained with a standard 4509, thanks to slower tool wear and better chip breakability. Stabilisation with niobium eliminates the risk of sensitisation during welding and the titanium limits the grain size in welded areas.


It has excellent cold-heading properties.


For some applications, it is an economical replacement for certain austenitic grades such as 1.4307 or 1.4305. Its ferritic structure ensures excellent ferromagnetic properties, good oxidation resistance (in particular to thermal cycles) and an expansion coefficient similar to that of carbon steel.


The structure of UGIMA® 4509 is entirely ferritic in the as-delivered condition. The main precipitates are Nb-carbonitrides, Ti-nitrides and Ti-sulphides or Ti-carbosulphides.

Related Standards

Equivalent Materials

This material data has been provided by Ugitech SA.

All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.

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Properties

General

PropertyTemperatureValue

Density

23.0 °C

7.7 g/cm³

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Mechanical

PropertyTemperatureValueComment

Elastic modulus

20.0 °C

220 GPa

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100.0 °C

215 GPa

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200.0 °C

210 GPa

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300.0 °C

205 GPa

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400.0 °C

195 GPa

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Elongation

23.0 °C

18 %

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min

Hardness, Brinell

23.0 °C

200 [-]

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max.

Tensile strength

23.0 °C

420 - 620 MPa

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Yield strength Rp0.2

23.0 °C

200 MPa

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min.

Thermal

PropertyTemperatureValueComment

Coefficient of thermal expansion

100.0 °C

1E-5 1/K

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for 20 to mentioned temperature

200.0 °C

1E-5 1/K

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for 20 to mentioned temperature

300.0 °C

1.05E-5 1/K

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for 20 to mentioned temperature

400.0 °C

1.05E-5 1/K

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for 20 to mentioned temperature

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Specific heat capacity

23.0 °C

460 J/(kg·K)

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Thermal conductivity

23.0 °C

25 W/(m·K)

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Electrical

PropertyTemperatureValue

Electrical resistivity

23.0 °C

6E-7 Ω·m

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Chemical properties

PropertyValueComment

Carbon

0.03 %

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max.

Chromium

17.5 - 18.5 %

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Iron

Balance

Manganese

1 %

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max.

Niobium

0.7 %

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max., min: 0.30+(3xC)

Nitrogen

0.03 %

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max.

Phosphorus

0.03 %

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max.

Silicon

1 %

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max.

Sulfur

0.015 %

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max.

Titanium

0.1 - 0.3 %

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Technological properties

Property
Application areas

  • Energy, process (solenoid valves)
  • Automotive: lambda sensor support, injection, solenoid valves, magnetic applications (solenoids)

    Usage limitations: cryogenic applications (insufficient resilience), applications requiring non-magnetic proper-ties

  • Cold Forming

    UGIMA® 4509 can easily be used for conventional cold-working processes: cold drawing, shaping, forming, cold heading, etc. As it is moderately work-hardened, there is less force on the tools.

    Corrosion properties

    Pitting corrosion: We assessed this type of corrosion by testing the pitting potential: the higher its mV/SCE, the greater the pitting corrosion resistance; a neutral, slightly chlorinated pH environment (0.02 moles/litre of so-dium chloride) of municipal drinking water was chosen (at 23°C). The following table gives the pitting potential values measured on samples from bars turned in the transverse direction:


    The pitting corrosion resistance behaviour of UGIMA® 4509 is therefore similar to that of UGI 4509.
    GradePitting potential (mV/SCE)Standard deviation
    UGI 4509484
    3
    UGIMA® 45094478
    UGIMA® 451136020


    Neutral salt spray test to ISO 9227 operating standard: Although, on stainless steels, this test greatly depends on the surface condition tested (presence of scratches, etc.), it was carried out on 15 mm diameter bars in their longitudinal direction, after me-chanical polishing with SIC 1200 paper. After both UGIMA® 4509 and UGI 4509 grades were tested for 500 hours, 90% of their surfaces were free from corrosion pitting. In this respect too, the salt spray resistance of UGIMA® 4509 is identical to that of UGI 4509.


    High-temperature oxidation resistance: A cyclic oxidation test was performed in air at 900°C which was maintained for 20 minutes, followed by air cooling for 300 cycles; the following table shows that the thicknesses of the oxide layers formed (fine and adhesive) are similar for both UGIMA® 4509 and UGI 4509 grades.


    Grade Thickness of oxide layers in mg/cm2
    after 300 x 20 minute cycles at 900°C
    UGI® 45091.9
    UGIMA® 45091.7
    UGIMA® 45111.2

    General machinability

    Compared to a standard 1.4509, UGIMA® 4509 provides significant productivity increases in machin-ing, thanks to slower tool wear and, above all, better chip breakability for the same cutting conditions.


    Turning: Standard VB15/0.15 tests were performed dry on a numerically controlled lathe and Chip Breaking Zones (CBZ) were determined. For equivalent tool wear, they revealed (see table below) a potential increase in productivity of approximately 6% with UGIMA® 4509, compared to a standard 1.4509, as well as im-proved chip breakability, reducing the risk of machine stoppage (to remove balls of chips that might form and break tools or scratch machined parts).


    Operations Tools1.4509 standardUGIMA® 4509
    Turning VB15/0.15 (1)
    (ap = 1.5 mm; f = 0.25 mm/rev)
    SECO TM2000 CNMG 120408 – MF4Vc = 390 m/minVc = 415 m/min
    Turning CBZ (2)
    (Vc = 150 m/min)
    SECO TM2000 CNMG 120408 – MF4 38 correct chip breaking conditions out of 56 tested 43 correct chip breaking conditions out of 56 tested

    (1) VB15/0.15: cutting speed at which 0.15 mm flank wear is noted in 15 minutes of actual machining; (2) CBZ: forward sweeping (0.1 to 0.4 mm/rev in increments of 0.05 mm/rev) and depth of cut (0.5 to 4 mm in increments of 0.5 mm) at a constant cutting speed, to determine the number of correct chip breaking conditions out of 7 x 8 = 56 tested.


    Screw machining: Tests were performed on a TORNOS SIGMA 32 industrial screw machine to compare UGIMA® 4509 with a standard 1.4509 and quantify the differences in machinability. For each grade, the test consisted in defining the optimum cutting conditions for different operations to produce 1000 components (see the diagram below) without having to change tool.


    Turning (roughing and finishing): The table below shows the cutting conditions that can be achieved to produce 1000 components without having to change tool for each grade according to the operations (roughing and finishing) and the tools used. The results of a standard VB15/0.25 test have been added to this table. For the three turning operations, potential productivity increases up to 30% were revealed with UGIMA® 4509 compared to a standard 1.4509.


    OperationsToolsStandard 1.4509UGIMA® 4509
    Rough turning
    (ap = 2 mm; f = 0.30 mm/rev)
    SECO TM2000 CCMT09T308-F2Vc = 150(1) m/minVc = 195 m/min
    Finish turning (2)
    (ap = 0.5 mm; f = 0.10 mm/rev)
    SECO TM2000 CCMT09T304-F1Vc = 275(3) m/minVc = 275(3) m/min
    Turning VB15/0.25 (4)
    (ap = 1.5 mm; f = 0.25 mm/rev)
    SECO TM2000 CCMT09T308-F2Vc = 220(5) m/minVc = 265 m/min

    (1) for f = 0.3 mm/rev, the standard 1.4509 chips are not well-broken, thus inducing lots of machine stops ; for f = 0,35 mm/rev and Vc = 130 m/min, 1000 parts are obtained in the standard 1.4509, their chips are well-broken but the Ra roughness of parts are over the 3.2 µm limit; (2) cut-ting conditions ensuring roughness Ra < 1.6 µm on the 1000 machined parts, thanks to limited tool wear; (3) maximal cutting speed of the TORNOS SIGMA 32 machine, making the differentiation between both grades; (4) VB15/0.25 : cutting speed at which 0.25 mm flank wear is noted in 15 minutes of actual machining; (5) at these extreme cutting conditions for standard 1.4509, bad surface roughness due to excessive tool wear.


    Cutting-off: The table below shows, for a cross-cutting operation, the cutting conditions that can be achieved to produce 1000 components without having to change tool for each grade. In parting-off, a very important increase in productivity (more than 80%) was noted with UGIMA® 4509 compared to a standard 1.4509.


    OperationsToolsStandard 1.4509UGIMA® 4509
    Cross-cuttingSANDVIK QD-NG-0300-0001-CF 1105Vc = 100 m/min
    f = 0.07 mm/rev
    Vc = 130 m/min
    f = 0.10 mm/rev

    Heat Treatment

    Softening: To restore ductility after cold deformation, Ugima® 4509 can be treated at a temperature between 750 and 900°C and air cooled.

    Hot forming

    UGIMA® 4509 has excellent forgeability at all temperatures, due to its entirely ferritic structure. It can be hot formed by forging or rolling at between 800°C and 1150°C. The heating temperature must not exceed 1150°C to prevent excessive grain growth.

    Other

    Available products:


    ProductFormFinitionToleranceDimension
    Bars
    Round
    Rolled descaledk13 – k12∅ 22 to 71
    Turned10 + 11∅ 22 to 70
    Ground7+8+9+options∅ 2 to 70
    Drawn9∅ 2 to 30
    Black± 1% ∅∅ 23 to 73


    Other products: contact the supplier

    Welding

    Thanks to its niobium and titanium bi-stabilisation, UGIMA® 4509 can be welded in the same way as a stand-ard 1.4509 by most arc welding processes (MIG/TIG, with or without filler metal, coated electrodes, plasma, etc.) by laser, resistance (spot or seam), friction or electrode beam welding, etc. No heat treatment must be carried out before or after welding so as to prevent ferritic grain growth in the grade.


    If a welding filler material is used, a homogeneous (stabilised ferritic) filler metal such as EXHAUST® F1 (18LNb) is preferred to ensure that the welded area (weld metal zone) [WZ] and heat-affected zone [HAZ]) is a 100 % homogeneous ferritic structure; for thick welds (≥ 3mm), an austenitic filler metal such as ER308L(Si) (1.4316) is preferred, in order to eliminate the risk of weakening the WZ through excessive grain growth. In MIG, as in TIG, the shielding gas must not contain hydrogen or nitrogen. In MIG, welds will be made under Ar (+ possibly He) + 1 to 3% O₂ or CO₂. In TIG, welds will be made under Ar (+ possibly He).