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Generally speaking, wherever 316 & 316L (4401 &4404) are used.
Limitations of use:
In case of doubt, please enquire
Wire drawing – Profiling: The UGI® 4362 is suitable for wire drawing and can be work hardened more than a 316L (1.4404), in comparable fashion to a 302 (1.4310). The work hardened UGI® 4362 can also be used for spring wire.
Cold heading: UGI® 4362 can be used for cold heading to replace 4404 and 4578, if a certain number of precau-tions are taken. It allows the manufacture of both ordinary and technical parts if the heading is not too severe.
When a cruciform recess-type reference part was manufactured at the R&D Center, measurement of the heading force showed an additional force of 20% for the duplex in comparison with the 1.4578 and the 1.4404.
Stamp wear will also be more significant if 4362 is used, in comparison with 1.4578 and 1.4404.
When manufacturing a cross-head screw, without lu-brication (acceleration of the test), the stamp broke after 6000 parts with the 4362, compared with 9000 parts for the 1.4404 and over 10,000 with the 1.4578. After cold heading, with UGI 4362 the free edge sur-face is smooth, contrary to 1.4578 and 1.4404, as shown by simple crushing between two piles.
The corrosion resistance of the cold headed parts is identical to that of parts manufactured with 1.4404 and 1.4578, to the extent that no severe heading defect was generated. If the manufacture of the parts is per-formed with care and the parts are correctly cleaned with rotation (trommel, etc.), then corrosion resistance can be significantly higher than that of the 1.4578
Generalized corrosion: The UGI® 4362 grade can replace 316L (4404) in most known applications; in particular:
This is illustrated by the corrosion diagrams in H₂SO4 an in NaCl media
Note: for use in boiling organic acids, please inquire.
Pitting corrosion: The UGI® 4362 grade exhibits a bettre pitting cor-rosion resistance in NaCl medium than 316L (4404)
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC): Stress Corrosion Cracking tests in a Chloride Medium ( 8 ppm O₂ ) at pH=7 , under a stress level exceed-ing the elastic limit and for more than 1000 hours have shown that UGI®4362 performs better than 316L (4404).
UGI®4362 may be used in this type of solution up to 130°C without risk of SCC. By contrast, for 316L (4404), the temperature should not exceed 50°C.
Turning: In turning operations (Vb15/0.15 test with the Ken-nametal KC9225 tool), the UGI 4362 grade appears better than EN 4462 and equivalent to UGIMA® 4404. Tool/material tests are to be performed to complement these results
Drilling (D:4 mm high-speed steel drill): for D:4 mm drilling, chip containment creates the same problem with respect to chip removal as that observed with Duplex 4462, due to poor chip breakability.
* Max. chip flow for 1140 holes 16 mm deep using the same drill
Drilling (D:6 mm carbide + TiN drill): For D:6 mm drilling, the poor chip breakability of 4362 does not appear to create any difficulties in terms of reducing the optimum working area or the useful life of the tools, as the 4362 grade behaves better than UGIMA® 4404 with respect to these two parameters, irrespective of whether or not the HM version is used.
Caution: the surface condition of the drilled holes may be of inferior quality, due to poor chip breakability.
** Max. chip flow for 516 holes 24 mm deep using the same drill.
Screw machining: Straight turning: confirms the very good behaviour of 4362 in turning operations, which is better than that of UGIMA® 4404 in this case.
Drilling with a D:4 mm high-speed steel drill: con-firms the difficulty of chip removal due to the poor chip breakability of 4362 in the absence of central cooling compared with UGIMA® 4404 HM
Cross-cutting: intermediate behaviour between UGIMA® 4404 HM and 4462 (see the table below).
*** Max chip flow for tool behaviour for 700 screw-machined components.
Optimum cross-cutting conditions for D:10 mm bars for cross-cutting 700 components with the same tool.
Forging: UGI®4362 grade can be readily forged between 1250 and 950°C, even though it is not as easy as for the usual austenitic grades (304 & 316). The hot workability depends on the ferrite content, which in turn in-creases with temperature: high temperatures will bring the best forging ability.
High temperature flow stresses of duplex grades are lower than that of austenitic grades. Thus, less mechan-ical power is required to forge a duplex grade. Precautions should be taken to avoid creep deformation.
After hot forming, a fast cooling (water or air) is necessary to prevent precipitation of sigma phase. Solution annealing is then optional. If forging finishes around 900°C, mechanical properties (YS and UTS) will in-crease due to strain-hardening.
Please contact the supplier for other products and dimensions
UGI®4362 may be welded by friction, by electrical resistance, by electric arc with or without filler metal TIG, MIG, electrode, plasma, under flux…), by laser beam, by electron beam …..
The low Mo content of the grade, precludes sigma phase formation in welding operations, unlike other du-plex stainless steels which require precautions. Welding is therefore straightforward, and not much more complex than that of austenitic grades such as 304L (4307) or 316L (4404). Duplex is even better as far as hot-cracking is concerned.
However, in order to optimize the impact properties of the welds, the welding conditions should maximize the welding energy in order to limit the amount of ferrite in the molten zone and in the heat affected zone.
Various filler metal grades may be used to weld UGI®4362, depending on the mechanical properties and the corrosion resistance required in the welds. The main ones are:
Preheating of the parts before welding is not necessary. No post weld heat treatment is required and should be carried out, with the possible exception of a complete solution anneal, if required.