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22.0 - 23.0 %
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Drawing – Profiling:
Owing to the high limit of elasticity of UGI® 4462, its cold working will require strengths greater than those needed to form an austenitic grade of the 1.4404 (316L) type. See the hardening curve of UGI® 4462 in the right side of the material page.
Cold heading: UGI® 4462 is not a grade optimised for cold heading. Its high mechanical properties will induce significant forming forces and rapid wear of the forming dies. However, the surface aspect of the parts formed in UGI® 4462 is much better than that observed on austenitic grades (no orange peel phenomenon). Thus UGI® 4462 can be used in ordinary cold heading or bending when orange peel phenomena are observed with austenitic grades. In the cold impact test, the UGI® 4462 allows for a 40% expansion deformation before cracking.
UGI® 4462 can be used in applications where corrosion resistance properties are essential:
This is illustrated by the diagrams of corrosion in a sulphuric acid H₂SO₄ medium (general corrosion) and in a sodium chloride NaCl medium (pitting).
This mode of corrosion is found mainly in the chemical manufacture of sulphuric or phosphoric acid. An accelerated test to simulate this type of corrosion is carried out by measuring the density of dissolution or activity current on a polarization curve in a sulphuric acid environment of 2 moles/litre (200 g/l) at 23°C. The graph on the right side of the material page shows the dissolution current values in µA/cm2 for grades UGI® 4462, UGI® 4362, UGI® 4404 and UGI® 4301 on wire rods (after mechanical polishing of the surface with SiC 1200 paper); the lower the values, the better the resistance to this type of corrosion).
It should be noted that UGI® 4462 has the better performance.
Pitting corrosion: This mode of corrosion is the most prevalent. Due mainly to the harmful effects of the chloride ions on the sulphide inclusions, it translates visually into small spots of corrosion. Our experiment consisted of determining on a polarization curve the potential from which corrosion pits are formed; the higher the potential, the better the corrosion resistance.
The graph in the right side of the material page shows the values of pitting potential in mV/SCE (Saturated Calomel Electrode) for wire rods, which have undergone mechanical polishing of their surface with SiC1200 paper, and immersed in 0.86 mol/litre of NaCl (30.4 g/l of chlorides) at 55°C (and also in 0.5 M of NaCl at 70°C).
Stress corrosion: Stress corrosion tests in a medium of the “NACE standard” type with application of stresses lower than the limit of elasticity for durations of 720 hours show that the UGI® 4462 grade has an area of non-cracking (on the left of the curves which are located on the right side of the material page) fairly comparable to those of the superaustenitic UGI® 4539 and super duplex UGI® 4507.
Because of its low sulphur content (to preserve its very good corrosion resistance) and strong mechanical properties, UGI® 4462 is a difficult-to-machine grade. The absence of sulphides in large quantities prevents good chip breaking in machining operations. The high mechanical properties generate, in turning, high cutting forces which lead to rapid tool wear. That is why the choice of cutting tools (carbide grade and chip breaker) is essential to machine UGI® 4462 correctly. Moreover, the choice of cutting conditions is more difficult than with grades having lower mechanical properties. It will be necessary to lower cutting speeds compared to austenitic grades, while avoiding taking them too low because one has to be able to maintain temperatures high enough at the tool tip to limit the cutting forces. As for cutting feed rates, they must be maintained at a level that allows the chips to be broken successfully.
The graphs below give an idea of the decreases in cutting conditions that may be carried out on UGI® 4462 compared to those of a 1.4404 for turning with a coated carbide tool and for drilling with a high-speed steel tool.
Our technical support department will be pleased to answer any questions on the subject
The solution annealing heat treatment using must be performed at a temperature between 1020°C and 1100°C followed by rapid cooling in air or water. This treatment restores the ductility of the grade UGI® 4462 after hot or cold working.
UGI® 4462 has satisfactory hot workability between 1220 and 950°C, although lower than that of ordinary austenitic steels (1.4301, 1.4404). Hot ductility is related to the ferrite content of the grade, which increases with temperature; it will therefore be better for high forging temperatures.
At forging temperatures, the mechanical strength of UGI® 4462 is lower than that of an austenitic, which gives rise to lower loads on tools, and sometimes it is necessary to take precautions to limit the creep deformation of the parts. Hot processing must be followed by a solution annealing heat treatment with rapid cooling, in order to restore the ferrite-austenite equilibrium, the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the grade.
Other products: contact the supplier
UGI® 4462 can be welded by friction, resistance, arc, with or without a filler wire (MIG, TIG, coated electrode, plasma, in a stream, ...) by laser beam, electron beam, etc. However, unlike austenitic stainless steels, UGI® 4462 must be welded in accordance with a field of linear welding energy to ensure good toughness of the welded areas. If the linear welding energy is too high, there is a risk - due to too-slow cooling after welding - of an embrittling sigma phase forming in a Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). If the linear welding energy is too low, there is a risk - due to too-rapid cooling after welding - of having too ferritic and, therefore, fragile HAZs.
The field of linear welding energy to be respected depends mainly on the geometry of the pieces to be welded, and in particular on their thickness. The thicker the work pieces are, the faster the cooling of the weld, which shifts the field of linear welding energy towards the high energies. The linear energy field to be respected also depends on the welding process used (MIG, TIG, …). In the case of multipass welding, it is important to allow the weld to cool to below 150°C between each pass. Preheating of parts before welding is not desirable and no heat treatment should be performed after welding, except, if necessary, for a solution annealing described in the paragraph on "Heat Treatment".
The filler wire that is best suited for MIG welding of UGI® 4462 is ER2209 - 22.9.3NL - UGIWELD TM 45N. Its more austenitic balance than that of UGI® 4462 limits the proportion of ferrite in the weld zone (WZ) and thereby the risk of fragility in WZ. We prefer a slightly oxidizing shielding gas (Ar + 1-3% O₂ or CO₂) to limit the oxygen level in WZ and thereby to ensure good toughnessin WZ. Under no circumstances should one add hydrogen to the shielding gas to avoid the risk of cold cracking in WZ. If necessary, one may add a few % of N₂ to the shielding gas to offset any loss of nitrogen in WZ during the welding operation.
It is imperative that the shielding gas to be used be absolutely neutral (Ar, partially substituted or not by He) to protect the tungsten electrode. As in MIG welding, hydrogen is prohibited in the shielding gas. Due to the absence of oxygen in the gas supply, this process ensures more easily good toughness in WZ.