VDM® Alloy 22

Alternative and trade names
Nicrofer 5621hMoW, Hastelloy C22, VDM® Alloy 22
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Description

2.4602 (NiCr21Mo14W) is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with tungsten and extremely low carbon & silicon content. It is characterised by the following features and properties:


  • Extraordinary resistance across a wide range of corrosive media under oxidizing and reducing conditions
  • Particularly high resistance to crevice, pitting, and stress corrosion
  • Related Standards

    Equivalent Materials

    This material data has been provided by VDM Metals.

    All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
    Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.

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    Properties

    General

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Density

    23.0 °C

    8.7 g/cm³

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    Mechanical

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Charpy impact energy, V-notch

    -196.0 °C

    96 J

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    20.0 °C

    120 J

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    Elastic modulus

    0.0 °C

    207 GPa

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    20.0 °C

    206 GPa

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    100.0 °C

    202 GPa

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    200.0 °C

    197 GPa

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    300.0 °C

    190 GPa

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    400.0 °C

    185 GPa

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    500.0 °C

    178 GPa

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    600.0 °C

    173 GPa

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    700.0 °C

    167 GPa

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    800.0 °C

    159 GPa

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    900.0 °C

    150 GPa

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    1000.0 °C

    143 GPa

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    Elongation

    23.0 °C

    45 %

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    Hardness, Brinell

    23.0 °C

    240 [-]

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    Tensile strength

    23.0 °C

    690 - 950 MPa

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    Yield strength Rp0.2

    20.0 °C

    310 MPa

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    100.0 °C

    270 MPa

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    200.0 °C

    225 MPa

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    300.0 °C

    195 MPa

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    400.0 °C

    175 MPa

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    Yield strength Rp1.0

    20.0 °C

    335 MPa

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    100.0 °C

    290 MPa

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    200.0 °C

    245 MPa

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    300.0 °C

    215 MPa

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    400.0 °C

    195 MPa

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    Thermal

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Coefficient of thermal expansion

    100.0 °C

    1.24E-5 1/K

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    200.0 °C

    1.24E-5 1/K

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    300.0 °C

    1.25E-5 1/K

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    400.0 °C

    1.31E-5 1/K

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    500.0 °C

    1.37E-5 1/K

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    600.0 °C

    1.43E-5 1/K

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    700.0 °C

    1.49E-5 1/K

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    800.0 °C

    1.55E-5 1/K

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    900.0 °C

    1.58E-5 1/K

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    1000.0 °C

    1.62E-5 1/K

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    Melting point

    1360 - 1400 °C

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    Specific heat capacity

    0.0 °C

    402 J/(kg·K)

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    20.0 °C

    406 J/(kg·K)

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    100.0 °C

    423 J/(kg·K)

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    200.0 °C

    444 J/(kg·K)

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    300.0 °C

    460 J/(kg·K)

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    400.0 °C

    476 J/(kg·K)

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    500.0 °C

    495 J/(kg·K)

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    600.0 °C

    514 J/(kg·K)

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    700.0 °C

    533 J/(kg·K)

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    Thermal conductivity

    20.0 °C

    9.4 W/(m·K)

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    100.0 °C

    11.1 W/(m·K)

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    200.0 °C

    13.4 W/(m·K)

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    300.0 °C

    15.5 W/(m·K)

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    400.0 °C

    17.5 W/(m·K)

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    500.0 °C

    19.5 W/(m·K)

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    600.0 °C

    21.3 W/(m·K)

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    700.0 °C

    23.2 W/(m·K)

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    Electrical

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Electrical resistivity

    20.0 °C

    1.21E-6 Ω·m

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    100.0 °C

    1.23E-6 Ω·m

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    200.0 °C

    1.23E-6 Ω·m

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    300.0 °C

    1.25E-6 Ω·m

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    400.0 °C

    1.26E-6 Ω·m

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    500.0 °C

    1.27E-6 Ω·m

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    600.0 °C

    1.28E-6 Ω·m

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    700.0 °C

    1.29E-6 Ω·m

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    Chemical properties

    PropertyValueComment

    Carbon

    0.015 %

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    Chromium

    20 - 22.5 %

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    Cobalt

    2.5 %

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    max.

    Iron

    2 - 6 %

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    Manganese

    0.5 %

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    max.

    Molybdenum

    12.5 - 14.5 %

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    Nickel

    Balance

    Phosphorus

    0.03 %

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    max.

    Silicon

    0.08 %

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    max.

    Sulfur

    0.02 %

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    Tungsten

    2.5 - 3.5 %

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    Vanadium

    0.35 %

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    Technological properties

    Property
    Application areas

    Organic syntheses, flue gas desulphurization, electrolytic galvanizing, plate heat exchangers, fine chemicals production, incineration plants, pharmaceutical intermediates, combustion-resistant alloy for high pressure oxygen applications.

    Cold Forming

    VDM® Alloy 22 has higher work hardening rate than other austenitic stainless steels. This should be taken into account when selecting forming equipment. The workpiece should be in the solution-annealed condition. Intermediate annealing is necessary for major cold forming work. For cold forming above 15%, new solution annealing must be conducted.

    Corrosion properties

    The chemical composition of Nicrofer 5621 hMoW has been designed to give it outstanding corrosion resistance in as wide a range of media as possible, both oxidizing and reducing. The high chromium content of the alloy makes it particularly suitable for oxidizing conditions, including wet chlorine gas, hypochlorite solutions or oxidizing acids. It is remarkably resistant to localized attack by halide ions, even under severe conditions of low pH and high temperatures. It resists attack in media contaminated by oxidizing chlorides such as ferric chloride or cupric chloride. Nicrofer 5621 hMoW is also resistant to many reducing media.

    General machinability

    Nicrofer 5621 hMoW should be machined in the solution-treated condition. As the alloy exhibits a high work-hardening rate only low cutting speeds should be used compared with low-alloyed standard austenitic stainless steels. Tools should be engaged at all times. An adequate depth of cut is important in order to cut below the previously formed work-hardened zone.

    Heat Treatment

    Solution annealing should take place at temperatures between 1,105 and 1,135°C (2,021-2,075°F). Cooling down should be accelerated with water to achieve optimum corrosion properties. Fast air cooling can also be carried out at thicknesses of less than approx. 1.5 mm. For strips as the product form, the heat treatment can be performed in a continuous furnace at a speed and temperature that is adapted to the strip thickness. In each heat treatment, the aforementioned cleanliness requirements must be observed.

    Hot forming

    The material can be hot-formed in a temperature range between 1,100 and 900 °C (2,012 °F-1,652 °F) with subsequent rapid cooling down in water or air. Heat treatment after hot forming is recommended in order to achieve optimal properties. For heating up, workpieces should be placed in a furnace that is already heated up to the target value.

    Other

    Nicrofer 5621 hMoW has a face-centered cubic structure.

    Welding

    It must be ensured in the welding process that work is carried out using targeted heat application, low heat input and rapid heat extraction. The interpass temperature should not exceed 120°C (248 °F). In principle, welding parameters must be checked.