VDM® Alloy 33

Alternative and trade names
Nicrofer 3033, VDM® Alloy 33
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Description

1.4591 (X1CrNiMoCuN33-32-1) is an austenitic alloy that has an excellent resistance against common corrosion and pitting corrosion in media containing chloride due to its well-balanced analysis and extraordinarily high chrome concentration. Also because of its very high strength and good workability, VDM® Alloy 33 is a material that can be used for many applications in the chemical processing industry showing the following features and properties:


  • Excellent resistance against pitting corrosion in media containing chloride and against general corrosion in hot mineral acids, mixed acids and alkalis as well as seawater and brackish water
  • High strength and high ductility even in high temperatures
  • Good workability and welding characteristics
  • ASME approval for pressure vessels in the temperature range from -196 °C to 450 °C (-320 to 842°F)
  • Equivalent Materials

    This material data has been provided by VDM Metals.

    All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
    Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.

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    Properties

    General

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Density

    23.0 °C

    7.9 g/cm³

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    Mechanical

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Charpy impact energy, V-notch

    23.0 °C

    150 J

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    Typical mechanical property for sheet and plate

    Elastic modulus

    20.0 °C

    195 GPa

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    100.0 °C

    185 GPa

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    200.0 °C

    176 GPa

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    300.0 °C

    170 GPa

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    400.0 °C

    163 GPa

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    500.0 °C

    159 GPa

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    Elongation

    23.0 °C

    40 %

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    Hardness, Brinell

    23.0 °C

    240 [-]

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    max., Typical mechanical property for all product shapes apart from strip

    Impact strength, Charpy notched

    23.0 °C

    1880 kJ/m²

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    Typical mechanical property for sheet and plate

    Tensile strength

    23.0 °C

    720 - 920 MPa

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    Typical mechanical property for all product shapes apart from strip

    Yield strength Rp0.2

    20.0 °C

    380 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties for all product shapes apart from strip

    100.0 °C

    320 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties for all product shapes apart from strip

    200.0 °C

    270 MPa

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    300.0 °C

    240 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties for all product shapes apart from strip

    400.0 °C

    220 MPa

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    500.0 °C

    210 MPa

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    Yield strength Rp1.0

    20.0 °C

    420 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties for all product shapes apart from strip

    100.0 °C

    350 MPa

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    200.0 °C

    300 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties for all product shapes apart from strip

    300.0 °C

    270 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties for all product shapes apart from strip

    400.0 °C

    250 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties for all product shapes apart from strip

    500.0 °C

    240 MPa

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    Thermal

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Coefficient of thermal expansion

    100.0 °C

    1.45E-5 1/K

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    200.0 °C

    1.53E-5 1/K

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    300.0 °C

    1.53E-5 1/K

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    400.0 °C

    1.57E-5 1/K

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    500.0 °C

    1.61E-5 1/K

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    Melting point

    1330 - 1370 °C

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    Specific heat capacity

    20.0 °C

    446 J/(kg·K)

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    100.0 °C

    466 J/(kg·K)

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    200.0 °C

    486 J/(kg·K)

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    300.0 °C

    503 J/(kg·K)

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    400.0 °C

    520 J/(kg·K)

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    500.0 °C

    538 J/(kg·K)

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    Thermal conductivity

    20.0 °C

    13.4 W/(m·K)

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    100.0 °C

    14.6 W/(m·K)

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    200.0 °C

    16 W/(m·K)

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    300.0 °C

    17.5 W/(m·K)

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    400.0 °C

    19 W/(m·K)

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    500.0 °C

    20.4 W/(m·K)

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    Electrical

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Electrical resistivity

    20.0 °C

    1.04E-6 Ω·m

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    100.0 °C

    1.07E-6 Ω·m

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    200.0 °C

    1.09E-6 Ω·m

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    300.0 °C

    1.12E-6 Ω·m

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    400.0 °C

    1.14E-6 Ω·m

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    500.0 °C

    1.16E-6 Ω·m

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    Magnetic

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Relative magnetic permeability

    23.0 °C

    1.01 [-]

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    Chemical properties

    PropertyValueComment

    Carbon

    0.015 %

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    max.

    Chromium

    31 - 35 %

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    Copper

    0.3 - 1.2 %

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    Iron

    Balance

    Manganese

    2 %

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    max.

    Molybdenum

    0.5 - 2 %

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    Nickel

    30 - 33 %

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    Nitrogen

    0.35 - 0.6 %

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    Phosphorus

    0.02 %

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    max.

    Silicon

    0.5 %

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    max.

    Sulfur

    0.01 %

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    Technological properties

    Property
    Application areas

    Sulphuric acid production plant, sulphuric acid heat recovery and distribution systems, nitric-hydrofluoric acid pickling plant, seawater systems, plate or tubular heat exchangers using brackish or seawater as coolant, bleaching plant for chemical pulp

    Cold Forming

    The workpieces should be in the annealed condition for cold forming. VDM® Alloy 33 has a higher work hardening than other austenitic stainless steels. This must be taken into account in the design and selection of forming tools and equipment, and in the planning of forming processes. Intermediate annealing is necessary for heavy-duty cold forming work. For cold forming of >15%, a final solution annealing must be conducted.

    Corrosion properties

    The austenitic material VDM® Alloy 33 has an extremely high chrome concentration of 33% and therefore offers the basis for the excellent corrosion resistance in oxidizing media. The low addition of molybdenum and copper improves resistance in phosphorus acid and simplifies passivation in sulfuric acid. Besides the excellent resistance against nitric acid/hydrofluoric acid mixture, the material also has great corrosion resistance against all alkali media. Furthermore, the resistance against pitting corrosion in media containing chloride is also excellent. Optimal corrosion resistance can only be assured if the material is used in clean, metallic bright condition.

    General machinability

    Machining of VDM® Alloy 33 should take place in an annealed condition. Since the alloy is prone to strong work hardening, a low cutting speed should be selected with a feed speed that is not too high and the cutting tool should stay engaged at all times. An adequate chip depth is important in order to cut below the previously formed strain-hardened zone. Optimum heat dissipation through the use of large quantities of suitable, preferably aqueous, lubricants has considerable influence on a stable machining process.

    Heat Treatment

    Solution annealing should take place at temperatures between 1,100 and 1,150°C (2,012-2,102°F), preferably at 1,120 °C (2,048°F). The retention time commences with the temperature equalization of the workpiece; longer times are generally considerably less critical than retention times that are too short. Cooling down should be accelerated with water to achieve optimum properties. Fast air cooling can also be carried out at thicknesses below approx. 3 mm. For strips as the product form, the heat treatment can be performed in a continuous furnace at a speed and temperature that is adapted to the strip thickness. The cleanliness requirements listed under "Heating" must be observed.

    Hot forming

    VDM® Alloy 33 should be hot-formed in a temperature range between 1,200 and 1,000°C (2,192-1,832°F) with subsequent rapid cooling down in water or air. For heating up, workpieces should be placed in a furnace that is already heated up to the target value. Heat treatment after hot forming is urgently recommended for achieving optimal corrosion behavior.

    Other

    VDM® Alloy 33 has a cubic face-centered crystal structure. The content of approx. 0.4% nitrogen together with 31% nickel stabilizes the austenitic crystal structure and reduces the dispersion speed of intermetallic phases.

    Welding

    For welding, VDM® Alloy 33 must be in a solution-annealed condition and free of scale, grease and markings. VDM® Alloy 33 is weldable in the same way as the filler material tested for suitability for welding, VDM® FM 33 TIG, (TÜV engineering specifications no. 07528). When welding the root, care should be taken to achieve best quality root protection (min. Ar 4.6) and the welding edge must be largely free of oxides after welding. Any heat tints must be removed. As shielding gas, argon with max. 5% hydrogen should be used.