VDM® Alloy 400

Alternative and trade names
Nicorros, Monel


VDM® Alloy 400 is a single-phase, solid solution, nickel-copper alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media.

VDM® Alloy 400 is characterized by:

  • Resistance against chloride-induced stress corrosion
  • Excellent strength even at low application temperatures
  • Easy processing compared to other high-alloy materials

Related Standards

Equivalent Materials



Electrical resistivity ρel

5.13E-7 Ω·m at 20 °C

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Density ρ

8.82 g/cm³ at 20 °C


Curie temperature Tc

20 - 50 °C at 20 °C


Elastic modulus E

182 GPa at 20 °C

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Hardness, Rockwell B HRB

150 [-] at 20 °C

Impact strength, Charpy notched Ivnot

1500 kJ/m² at 20 °C

Tensile strength Rm

450 MPa at 20 °C

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Yield strength Rp0.2 Rp0.2

175 MPa at 20 °C

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Coefficient of thermal expansion α

1.38E-5 1/K at 100 °C

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Melting point Tm

1300 - 1350 °C

Specific heat capacity cp

452 J/(kg·K) at 20 °C

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Thermal conductivity λ

23 W/(m·K) at 20 °C

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Chemical properties


Weight %



63 %


28 - 34 %


2 %



1 - 2.5 %


0.5 %



Technological properties

Application areas

Brine heater and recompression evaporator in saltworks, sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid alkylation, heat exchangers in the chemical industry, plating components for mineral oil distillation plants, splash zone lining on offshore platforms, impellers and pump shafts in marine technology, refining plants for the production of nuclear fuel, pumps and valves in production lines for tetrachlorethylene (perchlorethylene) and chlorinated plastics, heating tubes for monoethanolamine (MEA), sour-gas resistant components for oil and gas production. Alloy 400 is approved for pressure vessels from -10 to 425 °C pursuant to VdTÜV Material Sheet 263 and up to 480 °C in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

Corrosion properties

VDM® Alloy 400 has excellent resistance to neutral and alkaline salts and has long been the standard material for salt production systems. VDM® Alloy 400 is one of the few materials which can be used in contact with fluorine, hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen fluoride or their compounds. The material has a very high resistance to alkaline media. Its behavior in seawater is also excellent compared to copper-based alloys with an increased resistance to cavitation. VDM® Alloy 400 can be used in contact with highly diluted mineral acids, such as sulfuric and hydrochloric acid, provided that they are not ventilated. Since the alloy does not contain chromium, the corrosion rates can increase significantly under oxidizing conditions. While VDM® Alloy 400 is resistant to stress corrosion cracking, it can display stress cracks in the presence of mercury or in moist, aerated HF vapors. Stress relief annealing is necessary in these conditions.

General machinability

VDM® Alloy 400 can be easily machined in the soft-annealed condition. Strain-hardened, stress relieved material is a more favorable processing behavior in most machining processes. Since the alloy has a tendency to hardening, a low cutting speed should be selected and the cutting tool should stay engaged at all times. An adequate depth of cut is important in order to cut below the previously formed work-hardened zone. Optimum heat dissipation through the use of large quantities of suitable, preferably aqueous, lubricants has considerable influence on a stable machining process.


VDM® Alloy 400 is a binary nickel-copper alloy with a face-centered cubic microstructure.

This material data has been provided by VDM Metals.

All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.