VDM® Alloy 600 H

Alternative and trade names
Nicrofer 7216 H, Inconel 600, VDM® Alloy 600 H
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Description

2.4816 (NiCr15Fe) is a nickel-chromium-iron alloy in the solution-annealed condition that shows the following features and properties:


  • Good resistance against oxidation, carbonization and nitriding
  • Good resistance to stress corrosion in room and increased temperatures
  • Good resistance against dry chlorine and hydrogen chloride
  • Good mechanical properties at both low and high temperatures
  • Due to its improved creep resistance is preferred for use at temperatures above 700 °C (1,292 °F)
  • Equivalent Materials

    This material data has been provided by VDM Metals.

    All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
    Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.

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    Properties

    General

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Density

    23.0 °C

    8.5 g/cm³

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    Mechanical

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Charpy impact energy, V-notch

    23.0 °C

    160 J

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    Creep strength

    500.0 °C

    297 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed (1120°C) condition

    600.0 °C

    138 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed (1120°C) condition

    700.0 °C

    63 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed (1120°C) condition

    800.0 °C

    29 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed (1120°C) condition

    850.0 °C

    17 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed (1120°C) condition

    900.0 °C

    13 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed (1120°C) condition

    Elastic modulus

    20.0 °C

    214 GPa

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    100.0 °C

    209 GPa

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    200.0 °C

    205 GPa

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    300.0 °C

    200 GPa

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    400.0 °C

    194 GPa

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    500.0 °C

    187 GPa

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    600.0 °C

    180 GPa

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    700.0 °C

    172 GPa

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    800.0 °C

    163 GPa

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    900.0 °C

    153 GPa

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    1000.0 °C

    143 GPa

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    Elongation

    23.0 °C

    35 %

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    Typical mechanical properties

    Hardness, Brinell

    23.0 °C

    185 [-]

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    Typical mechanical properties

    Tensile strength

    20.0 °C

    500 - 700 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    100.0 °C

    480 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    200.0 °C

    460 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    300.0 °C

    445 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    400.0 °C

    440 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    500.0 °C

    435 MPa

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    Yield strength Rp0.2

    20.0 °C

    180 MPa

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    100.0 °C

    170 MPa

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    200.0 °C

    160 MPa

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    300.0 °C

    150 MPa

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    400.0 °C

    150 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    450.0 °C

    145 MPa

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    Thermal

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Coefficient of thermal expansion

    100.0 °C

    1.37E-5 1/K

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    200.0 °C

    1.41E-5 1/K

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    300.0 °C

    1.44E-5 1/K

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    400.0 °C

    1.48E-5 1/K

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    500.0 °C

    1.51E-5 1/K

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    600.0 °C

    1.54E-5 1/K

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    700.0 °C

    1.58E-5 1/K

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    800.0 °C

    1.61E-5 1/K

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    900.0 °C

    1.64E-5 1/K

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    1000.0 °C

    1.69E-5 1/K

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    Melting point

    1370 - 1425 °C

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    Specific heat capacity

    20.0 °C

    455 J/(kg·K)

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    100.0 °C

    475 J/(kg·K)

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    200.0 °C

    495 J/(kg·K)

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    300.0 °C

    508 J/(kg·K)

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    400.0 °C

    525 J/(kg·K)

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    500.0 °C

    550 J/(kg·K)

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    600.0 °C

    572 J/(kg·K)

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    700.0 °C

    602 J/(kg·K)

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    800.0 °C

    620 J/(kg·K)

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    900.0 °C

    630 J/(kg·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    635 J/(kg·K)

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    Thermal conductivity

    20.0 °C

    14.8 W/(m·K)

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    100.0 °C

    15.8 W/(m·K)

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    200.0 °C

    17 W/(m·K)

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    300.0 °C

    18.4 W/(m·K)

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    400.0 °C

    20 W/(m·K)

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    500.0 °C

    22 W/(m·K)

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    600.0 °C

    24 W/(m·K)

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    700.0 °C

    25.7 W/(m·K)

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    800.0 °C

    27.5 W/(m·K)

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    900.0 °C

    29.4 W/(m·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    31.2 W/(m·K)

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    Electrical

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Electrical resistivity

    20.0 °C

    1.03E-6 Ω·m

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    100.0 °C

    1.04E-6 Ω·m

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    200.0 °C

    1.06E-6 Ω·m

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    300.0 °C

    1.07E-6 Ω·m

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    400.0 °C

    1.08E-6 Ω·m

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    500.0 °C

    1.11E-6 Ω·m

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    600.0 °C

    1.12E-6 Ω·m

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    700.0 °C

    1.12E-6 Ω·m

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    800.0 °C

    1.12E-6 Ω·m

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    900.0 °C

    1.13E-6 Ω·m

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    1000.0 °C

    1.14E-6 Ω·m

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    Magnetic

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Relative magnetic permeability

    23.0 °C

    1.01 [-]

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    max.

    Chemical properties

    PropertyValueComment

    Aluminium

    0.3 %

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    max.

    Carbon

    0.05 - 0.15 %

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    Chromium

    14 - 17 %

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    Copper

    0.5 %

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    max.

    Iron

    6 - 10 %

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    Manganese

    1 %

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    max.

    Nickel

    Balance

    Phosphorus

    0.02 %

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    max.

    Silicon

    0.5 %

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    max.

    Sulfur

    0.015 %

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    Titanium

    0.3 %

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    Technological properties

    Property
    Application areas

    Thermocouple sheathing in aggressive atmospheres, vinyl chloride monomer production (resistance to chlorine, hydrogen chloride, oxidation and carburization), conversion of uranium oxide to hexafluoride (resistance to attack by hydrogen fluoride, production and use of caustic alkalis, particularly in the presence of sulphur compounds), production of titanium dioxide by the chlorine route, production of organic and inorganic chlorinated and fluorinated compounds (resistance to attack by chlorine and fluorine), nuclear reactor components, heat treatment furnace retorts, furnace belts and components, particularly with carburizing or nitriding atmospheres, catalyst regenerators in petrochemical production.

    Cold Forming

    The workpieces should be in the annealed condition for cold forming. VDM® Alloy 600 H has a significantly higher work hardening rate than austenitic stainless steels. This must be taken into account for the design and selection of forming tools and equipment and during the planning of forming processes. Intermediate annealing is necessary for major cold forming work. For cold forming of >15%, a final solution annealing must be conducted.

    Corrosion properties

    Nicrofer 7216 H is resistant to a wide range of corrosive media. Due to the chromium content the alloy possesses better corrosion resistance than Nickel 99.2 (alloy 200) and LC-Nickel 99.2 (alloy 201) under oxidizing conditions. At the same time, the high nickel content results in good corrosion resistance under reducing conditions and in alkaline solutions and leads to virtual immunity to chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking. Nicrofer 7216 H shows moderate resistance to mineral acids and good resistance to acetic, formic, stearic and other organic acids. Excellent resistance is shown in high purity water, as used in the primary and secondary circuits of some nuclear reactors. Nicrofer 7216 H is particularly resistant to attack by dry chlorine or hydrogen chloride, even at temperatures up to 650 °C. At high temperatures in air the soft-annealed and solution annealed alloy shows good resistance to oxide scaling and has high strength. The alloy also resists ammonia bearing atmospheres, as well as nitrogen and carburizing gases. Under alternating oxidizing and reducing conditions the alloy may suffer from selective oxidation (green rot).

    General machinability

    VDM® Alloy 600H is preferably processed in annealed condition. Since the alloy is prone to work hardening, a low cutting speed should be used with a feed speed that is not too high and the cutting tool should stay engaged at all times. An adequate chip depth is important in order to cut below the previously formed work-hardened zone. An optimal heat dissipation by using large quantities of suitable, preferably aqueous, cold forming lubricants has considerable influence on a stable machining process.

    Heat Treatment

    Solution annealing of VDM® Alloy 600 H should take place at temperatures between 1,080 and 1,150°C (1,976 and 2,102°F). The retention time starts with material temperature equalization; longer times are generally considerably less critical than retention times that are too short. Cooling down should be accelerated with water to achieve optimum properties. Fast air cooling can also be carried out at thicknesses below approx. 3 mm. For strips as the product form, the heat treatment can be performed in a continuous furnace at a speed and temperature that is adapted to the strip thickness. In each heat treatment, the aforementioned cleanliness requirements must be observed.

    Hot forming

    VDM® Alloy 600 H can be hot-formed in a temperature range between 1,200 and 900°C (2,192 and 1,652°F) with subsequent rapid cooling down in water or air. For heating up, workpieces should be placed in a furnace that is already heated up to the target value. Heat treatment after hot forming is recommended in order to achieve optimal properties.

    Other

    VDM® Alloy 600 H has a cubic face-centered crystal structure.

    Welding

    VDM® Alloy 600 H can be welded using the customary and conventional arc techniques such as TIG or MIG impulse technology. The material should be in its annealed condition for welding. A low heat input and fast heat removal must be ensured. The maximum interpass temperature should be between 100 and 150°C (212 and 302°F). Usually neither pre-heating nor a subsequent heat treatment is necessary.