General

Property | Temperature | Value |
---|---|---|

Density | 23.0 °C | 8.05 g/cm³ Show Supplier Material materials with Density of 8.05 g/cm³ |

Mechanical

Property | Temperature | Value | Comment |
---|---|---|---|

Creep strength | 600.0 °C | 205 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 205 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition |

650.0 °C | 150 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 150 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

700.0 °C | 101 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 101 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

750.0 °C | 56 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 56 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

800.0 °C | 31 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 31 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

850.0 °C | 18 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 18 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

900.0 °C | 10 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 10 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

950.0 °C | 5.5 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 5.5 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

1000.0 °C | 4.6 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 4.6 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

1100.0 °C | 2.5 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 2.5 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

Elastic modulus | 20.0 °C | 207 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 207 GPa | |

100.0 °C | 201 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 201 GPa | ||

200.0 °C | 196 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 196 GPa | ||

300.0 °C | 191 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 191 GPa | ||

400.0 °C | 186 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 186 GPa | ||

500.0 °C | 180 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 180 GPa | ||

600.0 °C | 171 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 171 GPa | ||

700.0 °C | 161 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 161 GPa | ||

800.0 °C | 150 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 150 GPa | ||

900.0 °C | 138 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 138 GPa | ||

1000.0 °C | 124 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 124 GPa | ||

1100.0 °C | 110 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 110 GPa | ||

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Elongation | 20.0 °C | 30 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 30 % | Typical mechanical properties |

100.0 °C | 45 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 45 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

200.0 °C | 45 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 45 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

300.0 °C | 45 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 45 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

400.0 °C | 45 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 45 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

500.0 °C | 45 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 45 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

600.0 °C | 45 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 45 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

700.0 °C | 50 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 50 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

800.0 °C | 55 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 55 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

900.0 °C | 65 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 65 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

1000.0 °C | 65 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 65 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

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Hardness, Brinell | 23.0 °C | 220 [-] Show Supplier Material materials with Hardness, Brinell of 220 [-] | |

Tensile strength | 20.0 °C | 620 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 620 MPa | Typical mechanical properties |

100.0 °C | 610 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 610 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

200.0 °C | 610 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 610 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

300.0 °C | 570 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 570 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

400.0 °C | 530 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 530 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

500.0 °C | 510 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 510 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

600.0 °C | 470 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 470 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

700.0 °C | 420 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 420 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

800.0 °C | 270 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 270 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

900.0 °C | 120 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 120 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

1000.0 °C | 80 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 80 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

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Yield strength Rp0.2 | 20.0 °C | 270 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 270 MPa | Typical mechanical properties |

100.0 °C | 260 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 260 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

200.0 °C | 220 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 220 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

300.0 °C | 200 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 200 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

400.0 °C | 180 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 180 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

500.0 °C | 175 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 175 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

600.0 °C | 165 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 165 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

700.0 °C | 130 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 130 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

800.0 °C | 110 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 110 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

900.0 °C | 75 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 75 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

1000.0 °C | 60 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 60 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

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Thermal

Property | Temperature | Value |
---|---|---|

Coefficient of thermal expansion | 100.0 °C | 1.45E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.45E-5 1/K |

200.0 °C | 1.46E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.46E-5 1/K | |

300.0 °C | 1.48E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.48E-5 1/K | |

400.0 °C | 1.5E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.5E-5 1/K | |

500.0 °C | 1.53E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.53E-5 1/K | |

600.0 °C | 1.56E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.56E-5 1/K | |

700.0 °C | 1.57E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.57E-5 1/K | |

800.0 °C | 1.63E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.63E-5 1/K | |

900.0 °C | 1.68E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.68E-5 1/K | |

1000.0 °C | 1.74E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.74E-5 1/K | |

1100.0 °C | 1.81E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.81E-5 1/K | |

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Melting point | 1330 - 1370 °C Show Supplier Material materials with Melting point of 1330 - 1370 °C | |

Specific heat capacity | 20.0 °C | 472 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 472 J/(kg·K) |

100.0 °C | 484 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 484 J/(kg·K) | |

200.0 °C | 498 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 498 J/(kg·K) | |

300.0 °C | 512 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 512 J/(kg·K) | |

400.0 °C | 526 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 526 J/(kg·K) | |

500.0 °C | 540 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 540 J/(kg·K) | |

600.0 °C | 554 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 554 J/(kg·K) | |

700.0 °C | 569 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 569 J/(kg·K) | |

800.0 °C | 588 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 588 J/(kg·K) | |

900.0 °C | 609 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 609 J/(kg·K) | |

1000.0 °C | 651 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 651 J/(kg·K) | |

1100.0 °C | 668 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 668 J/(kg·K) | |

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Thermal conductivity | 20.0 °C | 11.3 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 11.3 W/(m·K) |

100.0 °C | 12.5 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 12.5 W/(m·K) | |

200.0 °C | 14.2 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 14.2 W/(m·K) | |

300.0 °C | 15.8 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 15.8 W/(m·K) | |

400.0 °C | 17.5 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 17.5 W/(m·K) | |

500.0 °C | 19.2 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 19.2 W/(m·K) | |

600.0 °C | 20.6 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 20.6 W/(m·K) | |

700.0 °C | 22 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 22 W/(m·K) | |

800.0 °C | 23.2 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 23.2 W/(m·K) | |

900.0 °C | 24.4 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 24.4 W/(m·K) | |

1000.0 °C | 26.6 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 26.6 W/(m·K) | |

1100.0 °C | 28.2 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 28.2 W/(m·K) | |

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Thermal diffusivity | 20.0 °C | 2.97 mm²/s Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal diffusivity of 2.97 mm²/s |

100.0 °C | 3.24 mm²/s Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal diffusivity of 3.24 mm²/s | |

200.0 °C | 3.57 mm²/s Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal diffusivity of 3.57 mm²/s | |

300.0 °C | 3.9 mm²/s Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal diffusivity of 3.9 mm²/s | |

400.0 °C | 4.22 mm²/s Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal diffusivity of 4.22 mm²/s | |

500.0 °C | 4.51 mm²/s Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal diffusivity of 4.51 mm²/s | |

600.0 °C | 4.76 mm²/s Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal diffusivity of 4.76 mm²/s | |

700.0 °C | 4.95 mm²/s Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal diffusivity of 4.95 mm²/s | |

800.0 °C | 5.09 mm²/s Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal diffusivity of 5.09 mm²/s | |

900.0 °C | 5.21 mm²/s Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal diffusivity of 5.21 mm²/s | |

1000.0 °C | 5.34 mm²/s Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal diffusivity of 5.34 mm²/s | |

1100.0 °C | 5.58 mm²/s Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal diffusivity of 5.58 mm²/s | |

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Electrical

Property | Temperature | Value |
---|---|---|

Electrical resistivity | 20.0 °C | 1.22E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.22E-6 Ω·m |

100.0 °C | 1.24E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.24E-6 Ω·m | |

200.0 °C | 1.26E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.26E-6 Ω·m | |

300.0 °C | 1.28E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.28E-6 Ω·m | |

400.0 °C | 1.31E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.31E-6 Ω·m | |

500.0 °C | 1.32E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.32E-6 Ω·m | |

600.0 °C | 1.32E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.32E-6 Ω·m | |

700.0 °C | 1.32E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.32E-6 Ω·m | |

800.0 °C | 1.32E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.32E-6 Ω·m | |

900.0 °C | 1.33E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.33E-6 Ω·m | |

1000.0 °C | 1.33E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.33E-6 Ω·m | |

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Magnetic

Chemical properties

Property | Value | Comment |
---|---|---|

Aluminium | 1 - 1.7 % Show Supplier Material materials with Aluminium of 1 - 1.7 % | max. |

Boron | 6E-3 % Show Supplier Material materials with Boron of 6E-3 % | max. |

Carbon | 0.03 - 0.1 % Show Supplier Material materials with Carbon of 0.03 - 0.1 % | |

Chromium | 21 - 25 % Show Supplier Material materials with Chromium of 21 - 25 % | |

Copper | 0.5 % Show Supplier Material materials with Copper of 0.5 % | max. |

Iron | 18 % Show Supplier Material materials with Iron of 18 % | max. |

Manganese | 1 % Show Supplier Material materials with Manganese of 1 % | max. |

Nickel | 58 - 63 % Show Supplier Material materials with Nickel of 58 - 63 % | |

Phosphorus | 0.02 % Show Supplier Material materials with Phosphorus of 0.02 % | max. |

Silicon | 0.5 % Show Supplier Material materials with Silicon of 0.5 % | max. |

Sulfur | 0.015 % Show Supplier Material materials with Sulfur of 0.015 % | max. |

Titanium | 0.5 % Show Supplier Material materials with Titanium of 0.5 % | max. |

Technological properties

Property | ||
---|---|---|

Application areas | VDM® Alloy 601 has found a wide variety of applications in high temperature areas in furnace construction, the chemical industry, in environmental protection facilities, in the automobile industry and in power plants. Typical application fields include: rays, baskets and fixtures for heat treatment plants, e. g. in carburizing or carbonitriding environments, refractory anchors, strand-annealing and radiant heater tubes, high-velocity gas burners, wire mesh belts in industrial furnaces, isolating inserts in ammonia crackers and catalyst support grids in nitric acid production, high temperature components in automotive parts, e. g. manifolds, glow plug tubes or sensor caps, combustion chambers in solid waste incinerators, tube supports and ash-handling components, components in exhaust gas systems, oxygen preheaters. | |

Cold Forming | Cold working should be carried out on annealed material. VDM® Alloy 601 has a higher work hardening rate than austenitic stainless steels. This must be taken into account during design and selection of forming tools and equipment and during the planning of the forming processes. Intermediate annealing may be necessary at high degrees of cold working deformation. After cold working with more than 10 % deformation the material should be solution annealed in order to avoid recrystallization to a fine-grained microstructure with low creep resistance during operation. Scaled workpieces can also be cold-worked. The inside bending diameter should be at least 1.5 times the sheet/plate thickness. | |

Corrosion properties | According to DIN EN 10095 VDM® Alloy 601 is termed a heat resistant alloy on account of its excellent resistance above 550 °C against hot gases and combustion products, as well as against molten salt, while at the same time exhibiting good mechanical short-time and long-term properties. Even under severe conditions, such as under cyclic heating and cooling, VDM® Alloy 601 retains a tightly adherent oxide layer which is very resistant to spalling. According to DIN EN 10095, the maximum operating temperature in air is 1200 °C, while the loss of weight from scaling is not higher than 1 g/m² h on average. Resistance to carburization is good. VDM® Alloy 601 has also shown good resistance in (carbo) nitriding conditions, if a sufficiently high oxygen partial pressure is present. | |

General machinability | VDM® Alloy 601 should be machined in the solution annealed condition. As the alloy is prone to work-hardening, low cutting speeds and appropriate feed rates should be used and the tool should be engaged at all times. Sufficient chip depths are important to get below the work-hardened surface layer. Due to the high temperature loads on the cutting edge during machining, large amounts of cooling lubricants should be used. Water-based emulsions, as they are also used for construction and stainless steels, are suitable for instance. | |

Heat Treatment | For any thermal treatment the material should be charged into the furnace at maximum annealing temperature observing the precautions concerning cleanliness mentioned earlier under ‘Heating’. Solution annealing should be carried out in the temperature range 1,100 to 1,200 °C (2,010 to 2,190 °F). Optimum creep strength is achieved by a relatively coarse grained microstructure (≤ 5 according to ASTM E 112 or > 65 µm) using annealing temperatures between 1,140 and 1,160°C (2,084 and 2,120°F). The retention time starts when the annealing temperature is reached. Longer retention times are less critical than too short retention times. Water quenching should be carried out rapidly if the material should be further fabricated after solution annealing. Workpieces of less than 3 mm (0.12 in) thickness can be cooled down using air nozzles. If the solution annealing is the last fabrication step, the material can be cooled down more slowly in order to avoid material distortion. In components made of VDM® Alloy 601, stress relaxation cracks may occur during in continuous operation (>100 h) in the temperature range between 600 and 650 °C (1,112 and 1,202°F). The risk of cracking can significantly be reduced through a thermal treatment at 980 °C (1,796°F) for ~3 h. Heating rates are not critical, but should not be too high in order to avoid material distortion. | |

Hot forming | VDM® Alloy 601 may be hot-worked in the temperature range 1,200 to 900 °C (2,192 to 1,650 °F) with subsequent rapid cooling down in water or by using air. The workpieces should be placed in the furnace heated to hot working temperature in order to heat up. Heat treatment after hot working is recommended in order to achieve optimum fabrication properties (cold forming, machinability, weldability) and creep resistance. | |

Other | VDM® Alloy 601 has a face-centered cubic lattice. The good mechanical properties are determined by the precipitation of carbides below 1150 °C. Below 800 °C, additional γ’ precipitations may occur. | |

Welding | For welding, VDM® Alloy 601 should be in the annealed condition and be free from scale, grease and markings. VDM® Alloy 601 can be welded using the following procedures: GTAW (TIG), GMAW (MIG/MAG), plasma, electron beam welding (EB) and SMAW (MMA). |