VDM® Alloy 602 CA

Alternative and trade names
Nicrofer 6025 HT, VDM® Alloy 602 CA
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Description

2.4633 (NiCr25FeAlY) is a high-temperature material with excellent resistance to creep and oxidation up to 1,200°C. VDM® Alloy 602 CA is delivered in the solution-annealed state with an oxidized or descaled surface and shows the following features and properties:


  • Excellent high-temperature creep behavior values
  • Outstanding resistance to oxidation at high temperatures, even under cyclical conditions
  • Very good corrosion resistance in carburizing and oxidizing/chlorinating media
  • Approval for pressure containers with operating temperatures from -10 to 1,150°C according to VdTÜV material data sheet 540 and up to 1,650 °F (899 °C) according to ASME Code Section I as well as up to 1,800 °F (982°C) for applications according to section VIII Div. I.
  • Equivalent Materials

    This material data has been provided by VDM Metals.

    All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
    Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.

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    Properties

    General

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Density

    23.0 °C

    7.93 g/cm³

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    Mechanical

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Creep strength

    650.0 °C

    215 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    700.0 °C

    155 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    750.0 °C

    90 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    800.0 °C

    42 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    850.0 °C

    26 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    900.0 °C

    18 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    950.0 °C

    12.8 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    1000.0 °C

    9 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    1050.0 °C

    6.2 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    1100.0 °C

    4.4 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    1150.0 °C

    3 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    Elastic modulus

    20.0 °C

    215 GPa

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    100.0 °C

    209 GPa

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    200.0 °C

    201 GPa

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    300.0 °C

    197 GPa

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    400.0 °C

    192 GPa

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    500.0 °C

    189 GPa

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    600.0 °C

    185 GPa

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    700.0 °C

    169 GPa

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    800.0 °C

    154 GPa

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    900.0 °C

    137 GPa

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    1000.0 °C

    118 GPa

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    1100.0 °C

    102 GPa

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    Elongation

    23.0 °C

    30 %

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    for 20-700°C

    Impact strength, Charpy notched

    23.0 °C

    690 kJ/m²

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    Tensile strength

    20.0 °C

    675 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    100.0 °C

    650 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    200.0 °C

    625 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    300.0 °C

    600 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    400.0 °C

    580 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    500.0 °C

    560 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    600.0 °C

    520 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    700.0 °C

    420 MPa

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    Yield strength Rp0.2

    20.0 °C

    270 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    100.0 °C

    240 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    200.0 °C

    220 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    300.0 °C

    200 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    400.0 °C

    190 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    500.0 °C

    180 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    600.0 °C

    175 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    700.0 °C

    170 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

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    impactTransVNotch

    23.0 °C

    560 kJ/m²

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    Thermal

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Coefficient of thermal expansion

    100.0 °C

    1.42E-5 1/K

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    200.0 °C

    1.43E-5 1/K

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    300.0 °C

    1.44E-5 1/K

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    400.0 °C

    1.46E-5 1/K

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    500.0 °C

    1.49E-5 1/K

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    600.0 °C

    1.5E-5 1/K

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    700.0 °C

    1.52E-5 1/K

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    800.0 °C

    1.6E-5 1/K

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    900.0 °C

    1.67E-5 1/K

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    1000.0 °C

    1.73E-5 1/K

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    1100.0 °C

    1.79E-5 1/K

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    Melting point

    1340 - 1400 °C

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    Specific heat capacity

    20.0 °C

    447 J/(kg·K)

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    100.0 °C

    465 J/(kg·K)

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    200.0 °C

    488 J/(kg·K)

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    300.0 °C

    501 J/(kg·K)

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    400.0 °C

    514 J/(kg·K)

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    500.0 °C

    516 J/(kg·K)

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    600.0 °C

    517 J/(kg·K)

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    700.0 °C

    550 J/(kg·K)

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    800.0 °C

    583 J/(kg·K)

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    900.0 °C

    603 J/(kg·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    626 J/(kg·K)

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    1100.0 °C

    631 J/(kg·K)

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    1200.0 °C

    636 J/(kg·K)

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    Thermal conductivity

    20.0 °C

    10.4 W/(m·K)

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    100.0 °C

    12.3 W/(m·K)

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    200.0 °C

    14 W/(m·K)

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    300.0 °C

    15.5 W/(m·K)

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    400.0 °C

    16.9 W/(m·K)

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    500.0 °C

    18.4 W/(m·K)

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    600.0 °C

    20.1 W/(m·K)

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    700.0 °C

    22 W/(m·K)

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    800.0 °C

    24.1 W/(m·K)

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    900.0 °C

    26.2 W/(m·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    28.2 W/(m·K)

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    1100.0 °C

    29.7 W/(m·K)

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    1200.0 °C

    30.6 W/(m·K)

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    Electrical

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Electrical resistivity

    20.0 °C

    1.23E-6 Ω·m

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    100.0 °C

    1.25E-6 Ω·m

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    200.0 °C

    1.26E-6 Ω·m

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    300.0 °C

    1.28E-6 Ω·m

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    400.0 °C

    1.29E-6 Ω·m

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    500.0 °C

    1.31E-6 Ω·m

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    600.0 °C

    1.33E-6 Ω·m

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    700.0 °C

    1.32E-6 Ω·m

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    800.0 °C

    1.31E-6 Ω·m

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    900.0 °C

    1.31E-6 Ω·m

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    1000.0 °C

    1.32E-6 Ω·m

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    Magnetic

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Relative magnetic permeability

    23.0 °C

    1.01 [-]

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    max.

    Chemical properties

    PropertyValueComment

    Aluminium

    1.8 - 2.4 %

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    Carbon

    0.15 - 0.25 %

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    Chromium

    24 - 26 %

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    Copper

    0.1 %

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    max.

    Iron

    8 - 11 %

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    Manganese

    0.5 %

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    max.

    Nickel

    Balance

    Phosphorus

    0.02 %

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    max.

    Silicon

    0.5 %

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    max.

    Sulfur

    0.01 %

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    max.

    Titanium

    0.1 - 0.2 %

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    Yttrium

    0.05 - 0.12 %

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    Zirconium

    0.01 - 0.1 %

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    Technological properties

    Property
    Application areas

    VDM® Alloy 602 CA has a wide range of application in the high-temperature field of thermotechnical and chemical processes, in power plants and in the automotive industry. Typical applications are: Radiant tubes, furnace muffles, rotary and shaft furnaces, kiln rollers and other furnace installations, glass pot for melting radioactive waste, methanol and ammonia synthesis, hydrogen production, reformers in the chemical and petrochemical industries, components in automotive exhaust systems, glow plugs for diesel engines.

    Cold Forming

    The workpieces should be in the solution-annealed condition for cold working. VDM® Alloy 602 CA has a higher work hardening than austenitic stainless steels. This must be taken into consideration when choosing and designing forming equipment and forming processes. Intermediate annealing is necessary for major cold forming work. Solution annealing is to be recommended if deformation degrees over 7 % were reached. When bending and trimming metal sheets, an inner radius should be maintained that is more than three-times the thickness of the metal sheet in order to avoid damage.

    Corrosion properties

    VDM® Alloy 602 CA is especially characterized by very good oxidation resistance, which is better across the entire application range up to 1200 °C than with VDM® Alloy 601. Even under extreme conditions, such as cyclic heating and cooling, VDM® Alloy 602 CA retains this property, which is caused by a tight and adhering alumina layer, which is very resistant to chipping. High temperature oxidation tests show that, compared to other high temperature materials, this material has the lowest mass loss under cyclic stress. Caused by its chromium and aluminum content, VDM® Alloy 602 CA is also highly resistant in oxidizing sulfur-containing atmospheres at elevated temperatures. The good resistance of VDM® Alloy 601 against carburizing can be increased even further by VDM® Alloy 602 CA. This also applies to the metal dusting resistance of the material.

    General machinability

    VDM® Alloy 602 CA is preferably processed in a solution-annealed condition. Since the alloy is prone to work-hardening, a low cutting speed should be selected with a feed speed that is not too high. The cutting tool should be engaged at all times. An adequate depth of cut is important in order to cut below the previously formed strain-hardened zone. The strong heat development during machining should be countered by a sufficient amount of cooling lubricant. Water-based emulsions such as those used for structural and stainless steels are very suitable for this purpose. Suitable cutter geometries, suitable cutter materials and cut values can be taken from the VDM metals publication N 579 entitled "Processing information for austenitic stainless steels and nickel-based alloys".

    Heat Treatment

    During each heat treatment, the material is to be inserted into the furnace already heated up to the annealing temperature. The cleanliness requirements listed under the "Heating" section must be observed. VDM® Alloy 602 CA is usually used in the solution-annealed state, where optimal creep strength is a given. VDM® Alloy 602 CA is solution-annealed at 1,220°C (2,228°F) for maximum creep strength in order to specifically achieve a particle size of ≥70 μm. The retention time commences with material temperature equalization; longer times are generally considerably less critical than retention times that are too short. If additional processes steps take place after the solution annealing, the cooling from the solution annealing temperature should take place at an accelerated speed, e.g. with water or with compressed air (for metal sheets less than 3 mm (0.12 in) thickness). If solution annealing is the last processing step before use, cooling can be carried out more slowly in order to avoid warpage. Solution-annealed VDM® Alloy 602 CA is sensitive to stress relaxation cracks in a range between 600 and 750°C (1,112 and 1,382°F) and should therefore be stabilization-annealed if permanent deployment (>100 h) is to take place in the aforementioned temperature range. Stabilization-annealing should be carried out before or after welding work. In addition, VDM® Alloy 602 CA should be stabilization-annealed before repair welding. Stabilization-annealing should be carried out at 950°C (1,742°F) for at least three hours. Heating-up and cooling-down speeds are not critical in this case and should not be too high in order to avoid warping.

    Hot forming

    VDM® Alloy 602 CA can be hot-worked at a temperature range of between 1,200 and 900°C (2,192 and 1,652°F) with subsequent rapid cooling down in water or using air nozzles. The workpieces should be placed in the furnace heated up to hot-working temperature in order to heat up. Once the temperature has equalized the workpieces can be removed and worked within the stated temperature window. If the lower temperature limit is fallen below, the workpiece must be reheated. Heat treatment after hot forming is recommended in order to achieve optimal properties.

    Other

    Alloy 602 CA has a face-centered cubic lattice. The good mechanical properties, especially at temperatures above 1000 °C, are generated by primarily precipitated M₂₃C₆ or M₇C₃ carbides. Additional gamma precipitations can form below 800°C.

    Welding

    It must be ensured that work is carried out using targeted heat application and low heat input. The stringer bead technique is recommended. The interpass temperature should not exceed 120°C (248°F). In principle, it is necessary to check the welding parameters.