VDM® Alloy 625 (grade 2)

Alternative and trade names
Nicrofer 6020 hMo, Inconel 625, VDM® Alloy 625 (grade 2)
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Description

2.4856 (NiCr22Mo9Nb) Grade 2 is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum-niobium alloy with excellent resistance to a variety of corrosive. For high temperature applications above 600°C, the solution annealed variant (annealed at 1,080 to 1,160°C) is generally used. This grade and shows the following features and properties:


  • Excellent creep strength above about 600 °C
  • Good resistance to many types of hot gas corrosion, particularly chlorination
  • Equivalent Materials

    This material data has been provided by VDM Metals.

    All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
    Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.

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    Properties

    General

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Density

    23.0 °C

    8.47 g/cm³

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    Mechanical

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Charpy impact energy, V-notch

    23.0 °C

    100 J

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    Creep strength

    600.0 °C

    440 MPa

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    650.0 °C

    275 MPa

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    700.0 °C

    170 MPa

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    750.0 °C

    98 MPa

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    800.0 °C

    57 MPa

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    850.0 °C

    30 MPa

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    900.0 °C

    14 MPa

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    Elastic modulus

    20.0 °C

    209 GPa

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    100.0 °C

    202 GPa

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    200.0 °C

    195 GPa

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    300.0 °C

    190 GPa

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    400.0 °C

    185 GPa

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    500.0 °C

    178 GPa

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    600.0 °C

    170 GPa

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    700.0 °C

    162 GPa

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    800.0 °C

    153 GPa

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    900.0 °C

    142 GPa

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    1000.0 °C

    128 GPa

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    Elongation

    23.0 °C

    35 %

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    Impact strength, Charpy notched

    23.0 °C

    1250 kJ/m²

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    Tensile strength

    20.0 °C

    730 MPa

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    100.0 °C

    600 MPa

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    200.0 °C

    580 MPa

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    300.0 °C

    560 MPa

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    400.0 °C

    540 MPa

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    450.0 °C

    530 MPa

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    500.0 °C

    650 MPa

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    550.0 °C

    645 MPa

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    600.0 °C

    640 MPa

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    650.0 °C

    625 MPa

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    700.0 °C

    610 MPa

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    750.0 °C

    570 MPa

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    800.0 °C

    450 MPa

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    850.0 °C

    350 MPa

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    900.0 °C

    250 MPa

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    1000.0 °C

    120 MPa

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    Yield strength Rp0.2

    20.0 °C

    330 MPa

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    100.0 °C

    290 MPa

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    200.0 °C

    265 MPa

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    300.0 °C

    260 MPa

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    400.0 °C

    260 MPa

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    450.0 °C

    255 MPa

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    500.0 °C

    265 MPa

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    550.0 °C

    260 MPa

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    600.0 °C

    255 MPa

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    650.0 °C

    245 MPa

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    700.0 °C

    240 MPa

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    750.0 °C

    225 MPa

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    800.0 °C

    215 MPa

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    850.0 °C

    200 MPa

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    900.0 °C

    190 MPa

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    1000.0 °C

    100 MPa

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    Thermal

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Coefficient of thermal expansion

    100.0 °C

    1.25E-5 1/K

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    200.0 °C

    1.3E-5 1/K

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    300.0 °C

    1.33E-5 1/K

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    400.0 °C

    1.36E-5 1/K

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    500.0 °C

    1.39E-5 1/K

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    600.0 °C

    1.45E-5 1/K

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    700.0 °C

    1.52E-5 1/K

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    800.0 °C

    1.57E-5 1/K

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    900.0 °C

    1.62E-5 1/K

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    1000.0 °C

    1.66E-5 1/K

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    Melting point

    1290 - 1350 °C

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    Specific heat capacity

    100.0 °C

    496 J/(kg·K)

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    200.0 °C

    521 J/(kg·K)

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    300.0 °C

    538 J/(kg·K)

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    400.0 °C

    555 J/(kg·K)

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    500.0 °C

    573 J/(kg·K)

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    600.0 °C

    620 J/(kg·K)

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    700.0 °C

    654 J/(kg·K)

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    800.0 °C

    663 J/(kg·K)

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    900.0 °C

    677 J/(kg·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    684 J/(kg·K)

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    1100.0 °C

    695 J/(kg·K)

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    1200.0 °C

    705 J/(kg·K)

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    Thermal conductivity

    100.0 °C

    12.4 W/(m·K)

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    200.0 °C

    14.2 W/(m·K)

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    300.0 °C

    16 W/(m·K)

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    400.0 °C

    17.7 W/(m·K)

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    500.0 °C

    19.3 W/(m·K)

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    600.0 °C

    21.5 W/(m·K)

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    700.0 °C

    26.8 W/(m·K)

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    800.0 °C

    26.8 W/(m·K)

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    900.0 °C

    26.7 W/(m·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    28.2 W/(m·K)

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    1100.0 °C

    29.6 W/(m·K)

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    Electrical

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Electrical resistivity

    20.0 °C

    1.25E-6 Ω·m

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    100.0 °C

    1.26E-6 Ω·m

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    200.0 °C

    1.27E-6 Ω·m

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    300.0 °C

    1.29E-6 Ω·m

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    400.0 °C

    1.31E-6 Ω·m

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    500.0 °C

    1.32E-6 Ω·m

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    600.0 °C

    1.31E-6 Ω·m

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    700.0 °C

    1.3E-6 Ω·m

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    800.0 °C

    1.29E-6 Ω·m

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    900.0 °C

    1.28E-6 Ω·m

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    1000.0 °C

    1.28E-6 Ω·m

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    Magnetic

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Relative magnetic permeability

    23.0 °C

    1 [-]

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    max.

    Chemical properties

    PropertyValueComment

    Aluminium

    0.4 %

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    max.

    Carbon

    0.03 %

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    max.

    Chromium

    21 - 23 %

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    Cobalt

    1 %

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    max

    Iron

    5 %

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    max.

    Manganese

    0.5 %

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    max.

    Molybdenum

    8 - 10 %

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    Nickel

    58 - 71 %

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    Niobium

    3.2 - 3.8 %

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    Nb+Ta

    Phosphorus

    0.01 %

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    Silicon

    0.4 %

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    Sulfur

    0.01 %

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    Tantalum

    3.2 - 3.8 %

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    Nb+Ta

    Titanium

    0.4 %

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    Technological properties

    Property
    Application areas

    It is used for high temperature applications up to 1,000°C, acc. to ASME Code for Pressure Vessels. Typical applications include: Flaring systems in refineries and offshore platforms, Recuperators and compensators for hot exhaust gases, Components in the oil and gas extraction, Superheater tubes in waste incineration plants.

    Cold Forming

    Cold working should be carried out on annealed material. VDM® Alloy 625 has a higher work hardening rate than austenitic stainless steels. This must be taken into account during design and selection of forming tools and equipment and during the planning of the forming processes. Intermediate annealing may be necessary at high degrees of cold working deformation. After cold working with more than 15% of deformation the material should be solution annealed.

    Corrosion properties

    VDM® Alloy 625 (grade 2) is highly resistant to many corrosive gas atmospheres. It shows good resistance to carburizing and scaling under static and cyclic conditions, resistance to nitriding and good resistance to gases containing halogens and hydrogen chloride.

    General machinability

    VDM® Alloy 625 should be machined in the annealed condition. As the alloy is prone to work-hardening, low cutting speeds and appropriate feed rates should be used and the tool should be engaged at all times. Sufficient chip depths are important to get below the work-hardened surface layer. The optimum dissipation of heat through the use of large amounts of appropriate, preferably water containing cooling lubricants is crucial for a stable machining process.

    Heat Treatment

    The solution heat treatment should be carried out in the temperature range between 1,080°C and 1,160°C (1,976 and 2,120°F), preferably at 1,120°C (2,048°F). Water quenching should be carried out rapidly to achieve optimum corrosion characteristics. Workpieces of less than 3 mm (0.12 in) thickness can be cooled down using air nozzles. The workpiece has to be put into the pre-heated furnace. The furnace should be heated up to the maximum annealing temperature. The cleanliness requirements listed under ‘Heating’ must be complied with.

    Hot forming

    VDM® Alloy 625 may be hot worked in the temperature range 1,150 to 900°C (2,100 to 1,650°F) with subsequent rapid cooling down in water or by using air. The workpieces should be placed in the furnace heated to hot working temperature in order to heat up. Once the hot working temperature has been reached again, a retention time of 60 minutes for each 100 mm (4 in) of workpiece thickness is recommended. Afterwards, workpieces should be removed immediately and formed during the stated temperature window. If the material temperature falls to 950°C (1,742°F), the workpiece must be reheated. Heat treatment after hot working is recommended in order to achieve optimum microstructure and corrosion resistance.

    Other

    VDM® Alloy 625 has a face-centered cubic lattice.

    Welding

    VDM® Alloy 625 can be joined by all conventional welding processes. These include GTAW (TIG), TIG hot wire, plasma arc, GMAW (MIG/MAG) and MAG-Tandem, submerged arc welding and SMAW (MMA). For welding, VDM® Alloy 625 should be in the soft or solution annealed condition and be free from scale, grease and markings. Pulsed arc welding is the preferred technique. For the MAG process the use of a multi-component shielding gas (Ar + He + H2 + CO2) is recommended. When welding roots, sufficient protection of the root needs to be ensured with pure argon (Ar 4.6) so that the welding seam is free of oxides after welding. Root backing is also recommended for the first intermediate pass following the initial root pass and in some cases even for the second pass, depending on the weld set-up. Any discoloration/heat tint should be removed preferably by brushing with a stainless steel wire brush while the weld metal is still hot.