VDM® Alloy 690

Alternative and trade names
Nicrofer 6030, Inconel 690, VDM® Alloy 690
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Description

2.4642 (NiCr29Fe) is a nickel-chromium-iron alloy with approx. 30 % of chromium, which is particularly suitable for use in oxidising media and shows the following features and properties:


  • Very good resistance to fluoride containing hot nitric acid
  • Good resistance to stress corrosion cracking caused by alkalis
  • Excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking caused by media containing chloride and polythionic acids
  • Excellent resistance to many aggressive aqueous media or in the primary and secondary loops of nuclear reactors
  • Good resistance to oxidation, sulphidation and metal dusting in hot gases
  • Good mechanical properties at room temperature and high temperature, paired with high ductility
  • Equivalent Materials

    This material data has been provided by VDM Metals.

    All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
    Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.

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    Properties

    General

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Density

    23.0 °C

    8.2 g/cm³

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    Mechanical

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Creep strength

    700.0 °C

    56 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    750.0 °C

    41 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    800.0 °C

    30 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    850.0 °C

    21.5 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    900.0 °C

    15.4 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    950.0 °C

    10.9 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    1000.0 °C

    7.7 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    1050.0 °C

    5.4 MPa

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    Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition

    Elastic modulus

    20.0 °C

    212 GPa

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    100.0 °C

    206 GPa

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    200.0 °C

    201 GPa

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    300.0 °C

    195 GPa

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    400.0 °C

    189 GPa

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    500.0 °C

    182 GPa

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    600.0 °C

    175 GPa

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    700.0 °C

    167 GPa

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    800.0 °C

    155 GPa

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    900.0 °C

    152 GPa

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    1000.0 °C

    143 GPa

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    Elongation

    20.0 °C

    30 %

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    Typical mechanical properties

    100.0 °C

    45 %

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    Typical mechanical properties

    200.0 °C

    45 %

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    Typical mechanical properties

    300.0 °C

    45 %

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    Typical mechanical properties

    400.0 °C

    45 %

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    Typical mechanical properties

    500.0 °C

    45 %

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    600.0 °C

    45 %

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    Tensile strength

    20.0 °C

    590 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    100.0 °C

    580 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    200.0 °C

    550 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    300.0 °C

    520 MPa

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    400.0 °C

    500 MPa

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    500.0 °C

    490 MPa

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    600.0 °C

    470 MPa

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    Yield strength Rp0.2

    20.0 °C

    240 MPa

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    100.0 °C

    236 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    200.0 °C

    228 MPa

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    300.0 °C

    220 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    400.0 °C

    216 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    500.0 °C

    210 MPa

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    600.0 °C

    200 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    700.0 °C

    156 MPa

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    Typical mechanical properties

    800.0 °C

    120 MPa

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    Thermal

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Coefficient of thermal expansion

    100.0 °C

    1.37E-5 1/K

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    200.0 °C

    1.42E-5 1/K

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    300.0 °C

    1.46E-5 1/K

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    400.0 °C

    1.49E-5 1/K

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    500.0 °C

    1.54E-5 1/K

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    600.0 °C

    1.6E-5 1/K

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    700.0 °C

    1.65E-5 1/K

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    800.0 °C

    1.69E-5 1/K

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    900.0 °C

    1.73E-5 1/K

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    1000.0 °C

    1.77E-5 1/K

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    1100.0 °C

    1.82E-5 1/K

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    1200.0 °C

    1.86E-5 1/K

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    Melting point

    1390 - 1410 °C

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    Specific heat capacity

    100.0 °C

    496 J/(kg·K)

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    200.0 °C

    521 J/(kg·K)

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    300.0 °C

    538 J/(kg·K)

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    400.0 °C

    555 J/(kg·K)

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    500.0 °C

    573 J/(kg·K)

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    600.0 °C

    620 J/(kg·K)

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    700.0 °C

    654 J/(kg·K)

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    800.0 °C

    663 J/(kg·K)

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    900.0 °C

    677 J/(kg·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    684 J/(kg·K)

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    1100.0 °C

    695 J/(kg·K)

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    1200.0 °C

    705 J/(kg·K)

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    Thermal conductivity

    100.0 °C

    13.9 W/(m·K)

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    200.0 °C

    15.8 W/(m·K)

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    300.0 °C

    17.6 W/(m·K)

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    400.0 °C

    19.5 W/(m·K)

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    500.0 °C

    21.5 W/(m·K)

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    600.0 °C

    24.4 W/(m·K)

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    700.0 °C

    26.7 W/(m·K)

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    800.0 °C

    27.1 W/(m·K)

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    900.0 °C

    28.4 W/(m·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    29.6 W/(m·K)

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    1100.0 °C

    30.9 W/(m·K)

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    1200.0 °C

    32.3 W/(m·K)

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    Electrical

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Electrical resistivity

    20.0 °C

    1.16E-6 Ω·m

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    100.0 °C

    1.17E-6 Ω·m

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    200.0 °C

    1.2E-6 Ω·m

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    300.0 °C

    1.22E-6 Ω·m

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    400.0 °C

    1.24E-6 Ω·m

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    500.0 °C

    1.25E-6 Ω·m

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    600.0 °C

    1.25E-6 Ω·m

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    700.0 °C

    1.25E-6 Ω·m

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    800.0 °C

    1.25E-6 Ω·m

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    900.0 °C

    1.26E-6 Ω·m

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    1000.0 °C

    1.27E-6 Ω·m

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    Magnetic

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Relative magnetic permeability

    23.0 °C

    1.01 [-]

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    max.

    Chemical properties

    PropertyValueComment

    Carbon

    0.05 %

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    max.

    Chromium

    27 - 31 %

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    Copper

    0.5 %

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    max.

    Iron

    7 - 11 %

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    Manganese

    0.5 %

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    max.

    Nickel

    58 %

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    min

    Silicon

    0.5 %

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    max.

    Sulfur

    0.015 %

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    max.

    Technological properties

    Property
    Application areas

    Thanks to its excellent resistance to wet and high-temperature corrosion, and its good mechanical properties, VDM® Alloy 690 is suitable for a wide range of applications. Typical applications are: Treatment of radioactive waste, components in boilers and steam generators in pressurised water reactors, production of alkali metal sulphates using Mannheim furnaces, fittings in combustion units for crude oil (oil ash corrosion) and, glass and silicate production.

    Cold Forming

    Cold working should be carried out on annealed material. VDM® Alloy 690 has a higher work hardening rate than austenitic stainless steels. This must be taken into account during design and selection of forming tools and equipment and during the planning of forming processes. Intermediate annealing may be necessary for high degrees of cold working deformation. Before use, heat treatment is required after cold working with more than 10% deformation.

    Corrosion properties

    VDM® Alloy 690 is resistant to a wide range of corrosive media and atmospheres. The high chromium content makes the material particularly suitable for strongly oxidising conditions. The high chromium content also confers resistance to high-temperature corrosion in gases having an oxidising and sulphidising effect. Due to its high nickel content, VDM® Alloy 690 is exceptionally resistant to stress corrosion cracking which can occur in the primary water loops of nuclear power stations. The material also shows good resistance in mixtures of nitric and hydrofluoric acid. It demonstrates remarkable behaviour in concentrated (98.5%) sulphuric acid at temperatures of up to 150°C.

    General machinability

    VDM® Alloy 690 should preferably be machined in the annealed condition. Since the material exhibits a considerable work hardening rate, low cutting speeds should be used and the tool should remain continuously in contact. An adequate cutting depth is important in order to cut below the previously formed work-hardened zone. Optimum heat dissipation through the use of large quantities of suitable, preferably aqueous, lubricants has considerable influence on a stable machining process.

    Heat Treatment

    Solution annealing should be carried out at temperatures between 1,020 and 1,070°C (1,870 to 1,960°F). If use in a high-temperature range with increased creep resistance is intended, the solution annealing temperature should be raised to between 1,080 and 1,150°C (1,980 to 2,100°F). Water quenching should be carried out on workpiece thicknesses over 1.5 mm so that the optimum corrosion resistance of the material can be reached. Workpieces of less than 1.5 mm thickness can be cooled using air nozzles. If use in pressurised water reactors is intended, a subsequent heat treatment of around 10 hours at between 700 and 740°C is necessary in order to ensure that carbides are segregated specifically at grain boundaries.

    Hot forming

    VDM® Alloy 690 can be hot worked at a temperature range of between 1,230 and 900°C (2,250 and 1,650°F) with subsequent rapid cooling down in water or by using air nozzles. The workpieces should be placed in the furnace heated to hot working temperature in order to heat up. Once the temperature has equalised, a retention time of 60 minutes for each 100 mm of workpiece thickness is recommended. After this, the workpieces should be removed immediately and formed during the stated temperature window. If the material temperature falls below the minimum hot working temperature, the workpiece must be reheated. Heat treatment after hot working is recommended in order to achieve optimum properties and corrosion resistance.

    Other

    VDM® Alloy 690 has a cubic face-centred structure.

    Welding

    VDM® Alloy 690 should be in solution-annealed condition for welding, and should be free of scale, grease and markings. VDM® Alloy 690 can be welded using TIG and plasma welding processes. When welding roots, sufficient protection of the root needs to be ensured with pure argon (Ar 4.6) so that the welding seam is free of oxides after welding. Root backing is also recommended for the first and, in certain cases depending on the welded construction, also for the second intermediate root pass. Any discolouration/heat tint should be removed, preferably using a stainless steel brush, while the welding seam is still hot from the welding heat.