General

Property | Temperature | Value |
---|---|---|

Density | 23.0 °C | 8.2 g/cm³ Show Supplier Material materials with Density of 8.2 g/cm³ |

Mechanical

Property | Temperature | Value | Comment |
---|---|---|---|

Creep strength | 700.0 °C | 56 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 56 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition |

750.0 °C | 41 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 41 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

800.0 °C | 30 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 30 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

850.0 °C | 21.5 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 21.5 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

900.0 °C | 15.4 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 15.4 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

950.0 °C | 10.9 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 10.9 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

1000.0 °C | 7.7 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 7.7 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

1050.0 °C | 5.4 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Creep strength of 5.4 MPa | Rm/10⁴ h measured in the solution annealed condition | |

Elastic modulus | 20.0 °C | 212 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 212 GPa | |

100.0 °C | 206 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 206 GPa | ||

200.0 °C | 201 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 201 GPa | ||

300.0 °C | 195 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 195 GPa | ||

400.0 °C | 189 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 189 GPa | ||

500.0 °C | 182 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 182 GPa | ||

600.0 °C | 175 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 175 GPa | ||

700.0 °C | 167 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 167 GPa | ||

800.0 °C | 155 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 155 GPa | ||

900.0 °C | 152 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 152 GPa | ||

1000.0 °C | 143 GPa Show Supplier Material materials with Elastic modulus of 143 GPa | ||

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Elongation | 20.0 °C | 30 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 30 % | Typical mechanical properties |

100.0 °C | 45 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 45 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

200.0 °C | 45 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 45 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

300.0 °C | 45 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 45 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

400.0 °C | 45 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 45 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

500.0 °C | 45 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 45 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

600.0 °C | 45 % Show Supplier Material materials with Elongation of 45 % | Typical mechanical properties | |

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Tensile strength | 20.0 °C | 590 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 590 MPa | Typical mechanical properties |

100.0 °C | 580 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 580 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

200.0 °C | 550 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 550 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

300.0 °C | 520 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 520 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

400.0 °C | 500 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 500 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

500.0 °C | 490 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 490 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

600.0 °C | 470 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Tensile strength of 470 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

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Yield strength Rp0.2 | 20.0 °C | 240 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 240 MPa | Typical mechanical properties |

100.0 °C | 236 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 236 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

200.0 °C | 228 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 228 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

300.0 °C | 220 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 220 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

400.0 °C | 216 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 216 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

500.0 °C | 210 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 210 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

600.0 °C | 200 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 200 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

700.0 °C | 156 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 156 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

800.0 °C | 120 MPa Show Supplier Material materials with Yield strength Rp0.2 of 120 MPa | Typical mechanical properties | |

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Thermal

Property | Temperature | Value |
---|---|---|

Coefficient of thermal expansion | 100.0 °C | 1.37E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.37E-5 1/K |

200.0 °C | 1.42E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.42E-5 1/K | |

300.0 °C | 1.46E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.46E-5 1/K | |

400.0 °C | 1.49E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.49E-5 1/K | |

500.0 °C | 1.54E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.54E-5 1/K | |

600.0 °C | 1.6E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.6E-5 1/K | |

700.0 °C | 1.65E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.65E-5 1/K | |

800.0 °C | 1.69E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.69E-5 1/K | |

900.0 °C | 1.73E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.73E-5 1/K | |

1000.0 °C | 1.77E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.77E-5 1/K | |

1100.0 °C | 1.82E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.82E-5 1/K | |

1200.0 °C | 1.86E-5 1/K Show Supplier Material materials with Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.86E-5 1/K | |

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Melting point | 1390 - 1410 °C Show Supplier Material materials with Melting point of 1390 - 1410 °C | |

Specific heat capacity | 100.0 °C | 496 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 496 J/(kg·K) |

200.0 °C | 521 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 521 J/(kg·K) | |

300.0 °C | 538 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 538 J/(kg·K) | |

400.0 °C | 555 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 555 J/(kg·K) | |

500.0 °C | 573 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 573 J/(kg·K) | |

600.0 °C | 620 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 620 J/(kg·K) | |

700.0 °C | 654 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 654 J/(kg·K) | |

800.0 °C | 663 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 663 J/(kg·K) | |

900.0 °C | 677 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 677 J/(kg·K) | |

1000.0 °C | 684 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 684 J/(kg·K) | |

1100.0 °C | 695 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 695 J/(kg·K) | |

1200.0 °C | 705 J/(kg·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Specific heat capacity of 705 J/(kg·K) | |

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Thermal conductivity | 100.0 °C | 13.9 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 13.9 W/(m·K) |

200.0 °C | 15.8 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 15.8 W/(m·K) | |

300.0 °C | 17.6 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 17.6 W/(m·K) | |

400.0 °C | 19.5 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 19.5 W/(m·K) | |

500.0 °C | 21.5 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 21.5 W/(m·K) | |

600.0 °C | 24.4 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 24.4 W/(m·K) | |

700.0 °C | 26.7 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 26.7 W/(m·K) | |

800.0 °C | 27.1 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 27.1 W/(m·K) | |

900.0 °C | 28.4 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 28.4 W/(m·K) | |

1000.0 °C | 29.6 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 29.6 W/(m·K) | |

1100.0 °C | 30.9 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 30.9 W/(m·K) | |

1200.0 °C | 32.3 W/(m·K) Show Supplier Material materials with Thermal conductivity of 32.3 W/(m·K) | |

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Electrical

Property | Temperature | Value |
---|---|---|

Electrical resistivity | 20.0 °C | 1.16E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.16E-6 Ω·m |

100.0 °C | 1.17E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.17E-6 Ω·m | |

200.0 °C | 1.2E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.2E-6 Ω·m | |

300.0 °C | 1.22E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.22E-6 Ω·m | |

400.0 °C | 1.24E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.24E-6 Ω·m | |

500.0 °C | 1.25E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.25E-6 Ω·m | |

600.0 °C | 1.25E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.25E-6 Ω·m | |

700.0 °C | 1.25E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.25E-6 Ω·m | |

800.0 °C | 1.25E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.25E-6 Ω·m | |

900.0 °C | 1.26E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.26E-6 Ω·m | |

1000.0 °C | 1.27E-6 Ω·m Show Supplier Material materials with Electrical resistivity of 1.27E-6 Ω·m | |

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Magnetic

Property | Temperature | Value | Comment |
---|---|---|---|

Relative magnetic permeability | 23.0 °C | 1.01 [-] Show Supplier Material materials with Relative magnetic permeability of 1.01 [-] | max. |

Chemical properties

Property | Value | Comment |
---|---|---|

Carbon | 0.05 % Show Supplier Material materials with Carbon of 0.05 % | max. |

Chromium | 27 - 31 % Show Supplier Material materials with Chromium of 27 - 31 % | |

Copper | 0.5 % Show Supplier Material materials with Copper of 0.5 % | max. |

Iron | 7 - 11 % Show Supplier Material materials with Iron of 7 - 11 % | |

Manganese | 0.5 % Show Supplier Material materials with Manganese of 0.5 % | max. |

Nickel | 58 % Show Supplier Material materials with Nickel of 58 % | min |

Silicon | 0.5 % Show Supplier Material materials with Silicon of 0.5 % | max. |

Sulfur | 0.015 % Show Supplier Material materials with Sulfur of 0.015 % | max. |

Technological properties

Property | ||
---|---|---|

Application areas | Thanks to its excellent resistance to wet and high-temperature corrosion, and its good mechanical properties, VDM® Alloy 690 is suitable for a wide range of applications. Typical applications are: Treatment of radioactive waste, components in boilers and steam generators in pressurised water reactors, production of alkali metal sulphates using Mannheim furnaces, fittings in combustion units for crude oil (oil ash corrosion) and, glass and silicate production. | |

Cold Forming | Cold working should be carried out on annealed material. VDM® Alloy 690 has a higher work hardening rate than austenitic stainless steels. This must be taken into account during design and selection of forming tools and equipment and during the planning of forming processes. Intermediate annealing may be necessary for high degrees of cold working deformation. Before use, heat treatment is required after cold working with more than 10% deformation. | |

Corrosion properties | VDM® Alloy 690 is resistant to a wide range of corrosive media and atmospheres. The high chromium content makes the material particularly suitable for strongly oxidising conditions. The high chromium content also confers resistance to high-temperature corrosion in gases having an oxidising and sulphidising effect. Due to its high nickel content, VDM® Alloy 690 is exceptionally resistant to stress corrosion cracking which can occur in the primary water loops of nuclear power stations. The material also shows good resistance in mixtures of nitric and hydrofluoric acid. It demonstrates remarkable behaviour in concentrated (98.5%) sulphuric acid at temperatures of up to 150°C. | |

General machinability | VDM® Alloy 690 should preferably be machined in the annealed condition. Since the material exhibits a considerable work hardening rate, low cutting speeds should be used and the tool should remain continuously in contact. An adequate cutting depth is important in order to cut below the previously formed work-hardened zone. Optimum heat dissipation through the use of large quantities of suitable, preferably aqueous, lubricants has considerable influence on a stable machining process. | |

Heat Treatment | Solution annealing should be carried out at temperatures between 1,020 and 1,070°C (1,870 to 1,960°F). If use in a high-temperature range with increased creep resistance is intended, the solution annealing temperature should be raised to between 1,080 and 1,150°C (1,980 to 2,100°F). Water quenching should be carried out on workpiece thicknesses over 1.5 mm so that the optimum corrosion resistance of the material can be reached. Workpieces of less than 1.5 mm thickness can be cooled using air nozzles. If use in pressurised water reactors is intended, a subsequent heat treatment of around 10 hours at between 700 and 740°C is necessary in order to ensure that carbides are segregated specifically at grain boundaries. | |

Hot forming | VDM® Alloy 690 can be hot worked at a temperature range of between 1,230 and 900°C (2,250 and 1,650°F) with subsequent rapid cooling down in water or by using air nozzles. The workpieces should be placed in the furnace heated to hot working temperature in order to heat up. Once the temperature has equalised, a retention time of 60 minutes for each 100 mm of workpiece thickness is recommended. After this, the workpieces should be removed immediately and formed during the stated temperature window. If the material temperature falls below the minimum hot working temperature, the workpiece must be reheated. Heat treatment after hot working is recommended in order to achieve optimum properties and corrosion resistance. | |

Other | VDM® Alloy 690 has a cubic face-centred structure. | |

Welding | VDM® Alloy 690 should be in solution-annealed condition for welding, and should be free of scale, grease and markings. VDM® Alloy 690 can be welded using TIG and plasma welding processes. When welding roots, sufficient protection of the root needs to be ensured with pure argon (Ar 4.6) so that the welding seam is free of oxides after welding. Root backing is also recommended for the first and, in certain cases depending on the welded construction, also for the second intermediate root pass. Any discolouration/heat tint should be removed, preferably using a stainless steel brush, while the welding seam is still hot from the welding heat. |