VDM® Alloy C-276

Alternative and trade names
Nicrofer 5716 hMoW, Hastelloy C276, VDM® Alloy C-276
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Description

2.4819 (NiMo16Cr15W) is a nickel-chrome-molybdenum alloy with tungsten that shows the following features and properties:


  • Extraordinary resistance across a wide range of corrosive, watery media; in particular oxidizing and reducing acids
  • Particularly high resistance against chloride-induced crevice, pitting and stress corrosion
  • Equivalent Materials

    This material data has been provided by VDM Metals.

    All metrics apply to room temperature unless otherwise stated. SI units used unless otherwise stated.
    Equivalent standards are similar to one or more standards provided by the supplier. Some equivalent standards may be stricter whereas others may be outside the bounds of the original standard.

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    Properties

    General

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Density

    23.0 °C

    8.9 g/cm³

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    Mechanical

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Elastic modulus

    20.0 °C

    208 GPa

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    100.0 °C

    204 GPa

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    200.0 °C

    200 GPa

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    300.0 °C

    195 GPa

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    400.0 °C

    188 GPa

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    500.0 °C

    182 GPa

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    600.0 °C

    175 GPa

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    700.0 °C

    168 GPa

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    800.0 °C

    160 GPa

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    900.0 °C

    151 GPa

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    1000.0 °C

    143 GPa

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    Impact strength, Charpy notched

    23.0 °C

    1200 kJ/m²

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    Tensile strength

    20.0 °C

    700 MPa

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    100.0 °C

    660 MPa

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    200.0 °C

    630 MPa

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    300.0 °C

    600 MPa

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    400.0 °C

    570 MPa

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    450.0 °C

    530 MPa

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    Yield strength Rp0.2

    20.0 °C

    310 MPa

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    100.0 °C

    280 MPa

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    200.0 °C

    240 MPa

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    300.0 °C

    220 MPa

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    400.0 °C

    195 MPa

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    450.0 °C

    150 MPa

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    Thermal

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Coefficient of thermal expansion

    20.0 °C

    1.21E-5 1/K

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    100.0 °C

    1.24E-5 1/K

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    200.0 °C

    1.28E-5 1/K

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    300.0 °C

    1.31E-5 1/K

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    400.0 °C

    1.34E-5 1/K

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    500.0 °C

    1.34E-5 1/K

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    600.0 °C

    1.35E-5 1/K

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    700.0 °C

    1.4E-5 1/K

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    800.0 °C

    1.46E-5 1/K

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    900.0 °C

    1.51E-5 1/K

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    1000.0 °C

    1.56E-5 1/K

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    Melting point

    1325 - 1370 °C

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    Specific heat capacity

    20.0 °C

    426 J/(kg·K)

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    100.0 °C

    438 J/(kg·K)

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    200.0 °C

    453 J/(kg·K)

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    300.0 °C

    469 J/(kg·K)

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    400.0 °C

    483 J/(kg·K)

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    500.0 °C

    493 J/(kg·K)

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    600.0 °C

    515 J/(kg·K)

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    700.0 °C

    609 J/(kg·K)

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    800.0 °C

    605 J/(kg·K)

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    900.0 °C

    609 J/(kg·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    605 J/(kg·K)

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    Thermal conductivity

    20.0 °C

    10.2 W/(m·K)

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    100.0 °C

    11.6 W/(m·K)

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    200.0 °C

    13.4 W/(m·K)

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    300.0 °C

    15.1 W/(m·K)

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    400.0 °C

    16.7 W/(m·K)

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    500.0 °C

    18.1 W/(m·K)

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    600.0 °C

    20.2 W/(m·K)

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    700.0 °C

    25.7 W/(m·K)

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    800.0 °C

    25.8 W/(m·K)

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    900.0 °C

    25.9 W/(m·K)

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    1000.0 °C

    27.2 W/(m·K)

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    Electrical

    PropertyTemperatureValue

    Electrical resistivity

    20.0 °C

    1.25E-6 Ω·m

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    100.0 °C

    1.27E-6 Ω·m

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    200.0 °C

    1.28E-6 Ω·m

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    300.0 °C

    1.29E-6 Ω·m

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    400.0 °C

    1.3E-6 Ω·m

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    500.0 °C

    1.29E-6 Ω·m

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    600.0 °C

    1.28E-6 Ω·m

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    700.0 °C

    1.28E-6 Ω·m

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    800.0 °C

    1.26E-6 Ω·m

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    900.0 °C

    1.26E-6 Ω·m

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    1000.0 °C

    1.26E-6 Ω·m

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    Magnetic

    PropertyTemperatureValueComment

    Relative magnetic permeability

    23.0 °C

    1 [-]

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    Chemical properties

    PropertyValueComment

    Carbon

    0.01 %

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    Chromium

    15 - 16.5 %

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    Cobalt

    2.5 %

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    max.

    Iron

    4 - 7 %

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    Manganese

    1 %

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    Molybdenum

    15 - 17 %

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    Nickel

    51 - 63 %

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    Phosphorus

    0.02 %

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    Silicon

    0.08 %

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    Sulfur

    0.01 %

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    Tungsten

    3 - 4.5 %

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    Vanadium

    0.3 %

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    Technological properties

    Property
    Application areas

    VDM® Alloy C-276 has a broad field of application in the chemicals and petrochemicals industry, for components in organic processes containing chlorides, and for catalytic systems. The material can be used especially in cases where hot, contaminated mineral acids, solutions or organic acids (such as formic acid and acetic acid) and seawater occur. Examples of fields of application: Paper and pulp industry, e.g. for digestion and bleaching tanks, washers, agitators and wet ventilators in flue gas desulfurization systems, equipment and components for acid gas applications, reactors for acetic acid production, sulfuric acid coolers, methylene diphenyl isocyanate (MDI), manufacturing and processing of contaminated phosphoric acid.

    Cold Forming

    The workpieces should be in the annealed condition for cold working. VDM® Alloy C-276 has significantly higher cold forming properties than the widely used austenitic stainless steels. This must be taken into account during design and selection of forming tools and equipment and during the planning of forming processes. Intermediate annealing is necessary for major cold-working treatment. When cold forming of >15 %, final solution annealing must be conducted.

    Corrosion properties

    VDM® Alloy C-276 can be used in many chemical processes with both oxidizing as well as reducing media. The high chrome and molybdenum concentrations make the alloy resistant to chloride ion attacks. The tungsten content further increases this resistance. VDM® Alloy C-276 is one of the few materials that are resistant against chlorine gas, hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide solutions. The alloy is characterized by excellent resistance against concentrated solutions of oxidizing salts (such as iron III and copper chloride).

    General machinability

    VDM® Alloy C-276 should be machined in the heat-treated condition. For reasons of the considerably increased tendency to work hardening in comparison to austenitic stainless steels, a low cut speed at a feed level that is not too high should be selected and the cutting tool should be engaged at all times. An adequate depth of cut is important in order to cut below the previously formed strain-hardened zone. Optimum heat dissipation through the use of large quantities of suitable, preferably aqueous, lubricants has considerable influence on a stable machining process.

    Heat Treatment

    Solution annealing should take place at temperatures of between 1,100 and 1,160°C (2,012 and 2,120°F). The retention time during annealing depends on the semi-finished product thickness. The retention time commences with material temperature equalization; longer times are generally considerably less critical than retention times that are too short. Cooling down should be accelerated with water to achieve optimum properties. Fast air cooling can also be carried out at thicknesses of less than approx. 1.5 mm (0.059 in). In the process, the cooling must take place within 2 minutes between 1,000 and 600°C (1,832 and 1,112°F). The material must be placed in a furnace that has been heated up to the maximum annealing temperature before any heat treatment. For the product form strip, the heat treatment can be performed in a continuous furnace at a speed and temperature that is adapted to the band thickness. The cleanliness requirements listed in the Section ‘Heating’ have to be observed.

    Hot forming

    VDM® Alloy C-276 should be hot-formed in a temperature range of 950 to 1,200°C (1,742 to 2,192°F) with subsequent rapid cooling in water or in air. Heat treatment after hot-working is recommended in order to achieve optimal corrosion behavior. For heating up, workpieces should be placed in a furnace that is already heated up to the target value.

    Other

    VDM® Alloy C-276 has a cubic, face-centered microstructure. In the temperature range of 600 to 1100 °C, intermetallic phases can form during longer exposure times or when cooling is too slow. In addition, carbides can dissipate on the grain boundaries, which reduce resistance against intercrystalline corrosion.

    Welding

    VDM® Alloy C-276 can be welded using all of the common welding processes, such as GTAW (TIG), GTAW (TIG) hot wire, plasma and GMAW (MIG/MAG).